Research programs


SliceThe clinical service actively pursues improvement of surgical results. It applies the relevant scientific advances to clinical practice. The main clinical goal has been minimally invasive neurosurgery featuring both the technology and its assessment. For more information, see: Innovative Clinic Model.

The Oulu School of Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery

The major focus of research has led to the Oulu School of Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery.

The Neurosurgical Research Unit

Areas of Specific Research

The research program consists of clinical patient follow-up studies, neurosurgical technology, molecular biology and assessment of health care technology.

  1. Intraoperative Imaging Research
  2. Epilepsy Research
  3. Spine Research
  4. Head Injury Research
  5. Pain Management Research
  6. Collagen Research
  7. Neuronavigation and Robotics
  8. Clinical Outcomes Research: tumors, Parkinson's disease, intracerebral hemorrhage
  9. Nursing Research

Selected Scientific Works


PH.D. THESES (By department faculty, all at the University of Oulu)

Heikkinen, Esa (1976) Cerebrospinal fluid cyclic AMP: A clinicoexperimental study

Koivukangas, John (1984) Ultrasound imaging in operative neurosurgery: An experimental and clinical study with special reference to ultrasound holographic B (UHB) imaging

Kumpulainen, Timo (1986) Demonstration of carbonic anhydrases I and II by immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay techniques with special emphasis on the nervous system. & Department of Anatomy

Heiskari, Matti (1988) Operative treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy in cervical degenerative disc diseases: With special reference to diagnostic and postoperative somatosensory evoked potential studies

Rönty, Hannu (1988) Cerebral trauma: A clinical, computed tomography, quantitative EEG, blood circulation isotope and neuropsychological follow-up study

Electronic PublicationsSajanti, Juha (1999) Meningeal fibrosis after subarachnoid haemorrhage : a clinical and experimental study

Yrjänä, Sanna (2005) Implementation of 0.23 T magnetic resonance scanner to perioperative imaging in neurosurgery

Erola, Tuomo (2006) Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease: A clinical study. & Department of Neurology.

Tetri, Sami (2009) Factors affecting outcome after primary intracerebral hemorrhage. & Department of Neurology.

JOINT PH.D. THESES (University of Oulu)

Alasaarela, Esko (1983) Ultrasound holographic B (UHB) imaging: A theoretical analysis, computer simulation and preliminary experiments. Department of Electrical Engineering

Ylitalo, Juha (1987) Ultrasound tomography. Department of Electrical Engineering

Zhengdi, Qin (1988) Frequency domain compensation principle in acoustic holography and circular array imaging using linear array approach. Department of Electrical Engineering

Tervonen, Osmo (1988) Ultrasound of the lumbar intervertebral disc and spinal canal. Department of Diagnostic Radiology

Koivukangas, Pirjo (1993) A two-wave MIMIC model for the construction of a health status index based on the health production function: With special reference to the assessment of neurosurgical treatment of brain tumor patients. Department of Economics

Ying, Xiaoyou (1995) Digital imaging based on measurements and analyses in quantitative biomedical research at cellular and microvascular levels. & Departments of Physical Sciences / Division of Biophysics, and Electrical Engineering

Ohinmaa, Arto (1997) Indexing health-related quality of life: A comparison of preference-weighted and unweighted indexes. & Department of Economics

Oikarinen, Jarkko (1999) Accelerating direct volume rendering using seed filling in the lattice view. & Departments of Information Processing Science, Diagnostic Radiology, and Biomedical Engineering Program

Mainio, Arja (2005) Depressive and anxious symptomatology in relation to a primary brain tumor. & Department of Psychiatry.

Kokkonen, Salla-Maarit (2009) MRI of intracranial tumours in adults: Oedema-attenuated inversion recovery MR sequence in low-field MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and BOLD fMRI. & Department of Diagnostic Radiology.

Jartti, Pekka (2010) Computed tomography in subarachnoid haemorrhage: Studies on aneurysm localization, hydrocephalus and early bleeding. & Department of Diagnostic Radiology.


Electronic PublicationsSchiffbauer, Hagen (1998) Neuronavigation in brain tumor surgery - Clinical beta-phase of the Oulu Neuronavigator System. & Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany


Alakuijala, Jyrki: (2001) Algorithms for modeling anathomic and target values in image-guided neurosurgery and radiotherapy. Department of Electrical Engineering

Ojala, Risto: (2002) MR-guided interventions at 0.23T. Department of Diagnostic Radiology


Niemelä, Asko: Quality of life in outcomes analysis of brain tumor treatment. & Department of Psychiatry

Koskelainen, Tatu: Assessment of neuromodulation for treatment of pain

Louhisalmi, Yrjö: Surgical robotics. & Department of Mechanical Engineering

Katisko, Jani: Intraoperative imaging

Tuominen, Juho: Neurosurgical intraoperative MRI

Heula, Anna-Leena: Moleculat biology of subdural hematoma

Salokorpi, Niina: Molecular biology and imaging of meningioma

Raappana, Antti: Pituitary adenoma. & Department of Otorhinolaryngology

Koivukangas, Tapani: Neuronavigator accuracy. & Department of Mechanical Engineering

Kauppinen, Mikko: Management of severe head injuries


Koivukangas, Pirjo (1990) Application of the analysis of demand for health to the construction of a MIMIC-disability index: With special reference to the measurement of surgical management of brain tumors. Department of Economics.

Louhisalmi, Yrjö (1992) Neurosurgical localization arm. Department of Mechanical Engineering

Katisko, Jani (2004) Optically neuronavigated ultrasonography in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging environment. Department of Physics


Louhisalmi, Yrjö (1987) Computer assisted method for laser guidance in stereotactic neurosurgery. Department of Mechanical Engineering

Oikarinen, Jarkko (1992) Visualization system for neuronavigator. Department of Electrical Engineering

Alakuijala, Jyrki (1992) System interfaces and control for neurosurgical workstation. Department of Electrical Engineering

Helminen, Hannu (1993) Geometric modeling of neuronavigator and intraoperative registration of diagnostic volumetric imaging. Department of Electrical Engineering

Kukkonen, Jaana (1994) Activity based costing in an academic neurosurgical department. & Department of Economics

Pentikäinen, Tuomo (1995) Economic evaluation of health care as method to control market failure. & Department of Economics (Helsinki)

Anttila, Petri (1996) The use of cost analysis in the economic assessment of hospital activity. & Department of Economics

Katisko, Jani (1997) Development of endoscopic ultrasound transducer for neurosurgery. & Department of Physical Sciences, Biophysics

Kanervo, Jari (1997) The development of total quality control at an academic neurosurgical department. & Department of Economics

Koivukangas, Tapani (2008) A phantom and protocol for accuracy assessment of surgical navigators. & Department of Mechanical Engineering

Hertel, Stefan (2010) A patient positioning device for intraoperative MRI. & Departments of Mechanical Engineering, and Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN, USA



Last Updated 14 February 2001