Methods

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

 

AAI:  Adult Attachment Interview. The AAI is a parent interview about his/her childhood attachment and present attachment to his/her child. Used in Minna Dahlström’s study on brain imaging in different child psychiatric disorders

AbaCo: Assessment Battery for Communication (Sacco et al., 2008). An instrument for the evaluation of pragmatic abilities.

ADHD – OULU: Semi-structured interview developed to elicit a full range of information needed to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.

ADI-R:  The Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R; Lord et al., 1994) is a standardized investigator-based, semi-structured parental interview developed to elicit a full range of the information needed when evaluating the diagnostic criteria of autism and related PDDs. It covers all three main symptom areas associated with PDDs (reciprocal social interaction, communication and restricted and stereotyped behaviour and interests).

ADOS:  The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., 2000) is a semi-structured assessment of social interaction, communication, and play or imaginative use of materials. It comprises four modules based on the verbal level of the subject being evaluated.

ASDI: The Asperger Syndrome (and high-functioning autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI; Gillberg et al., 2001) is an investigator-based interview consisting of 20 items covering all diagnostic items for AS in Gillberg and Gillberg's criteria list.

ASI: Anxiety Sensitivity Index; (ASI; Peterson & Reiss, 1987). The ASI is a self-report questionnaire measuring anxiety sensitivity with 16 questions. All items are rated on a five-point Likert-type scale. The ASI is for adults over 18-years old.

ASR: Adult Self-Report (ASR; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2003). The ASR is a self-report questionnaire to describe respondents’ own functioning consisting of 126 items. All items are rated on a three-point Likert-type scale (0 = not true, 1 = somewhat or sometimes true, 2 = very true or often true). The ASR is for adults aged 18-59 years.

ASSQ:  The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ; Ehlers et al., 1999) is an informant based rating scale, designed to screen PDDs in high functioning (normal intelligence or mild mental retardation) children aged 7-16 years. It consists of 27 items, of which 11 regard impairment of social interaction, 6 communication problems, 5 restricted and repetitive behavior, and 5 motor clumsiness, motor and vocal tics and other PDD related symptoms.

B-FNE: Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (B-FNE; Leary, 1983). The B-FNE is a self-report questionnaire measuring fear of negative evaluation with 12 items. All items are rated on a five-point Likert-type scale. Questionnaire is for adults.

BITSEA: Brief Infant and Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA; Briggs-Gowan and Carter, 2006) is a screening instrument for identifying social-emotional and behavioural problems and/or delays or deficits in social-emotional competence in children aged 12 to 35months and 30 days (Briggs-Gowan et al., 2001). The BITSEA includes 42 items that address the following: six questions indicating externalizing problems, eight questions concerning internalizing problems, eight questions concerning dysregulation problems, 11 questions concerning competence items, 17 questions concerning potential early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 14 questions concerning red flag items (Briggs-Gowan and Carter, 2006).  The BITSEA response format is: 0 = Not true/Rarely, 1 = Somewhat true/Sometimes and 2 = Very True/Often and it can be used as a parent-administered questionnaire or as a structured interview.

CASI: Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI; Silverman et al., 1991). The CASI is a self-report questionnaire measuring anxiety sensitivity with 18 items. All items are rated on a three-point Likert-type scale. The questionnaire is for children aged 8-18 years.

CBCL: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Eldelbrock, 1983) is a parent-report measure that has been widely used internationally to assess parent reported problem behaviours in children aged four to 18 years; it has demonstrated good psychometric properties in both clinical and normative samples (e.g., Ivanova et al., 2007). Parents rate their child’s problem behaviours and competencies by completing 20 assessing competencies and 120 items assessing behavioural or emotional problems during the past 6 months. Items are rated on a 3-point Likert-type scale (i.e., 0 = not true; 1 = somewhat or sometimes true; 2 = and very often true or often true). Problem items form subscales that evaluate the child’s internalizing (i.e., withdrawn, somatic complaints, and anxious/depressed) and externalizing symptoms (i.e., aggressive and delinquent behaviour) as well as social and thought problems.

CHAT: the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT; Baron-Cohen et al., 1992, 1996) is a screening instrument that was devised to test the prediction that those children not exhibiting joint attention and pretend play by the age of 18 months might be at risk for receiving a later diagnosis of autism. The CHAT is designed to be administered by primary healthcare workers or clinicians in children’s services. The CHAT includes 14 yes or no questions. If the child fails the five “key items” (the questions measuring pretend play and producing and following a point) he/she has a high risk for autism (Baron-Cohen et al., 2000). 

Dot Probe: (Pollock et al., 2003). In this task the subject sees two faces on the computer screen for 500ms. After 500ms, photos vanish and a black dot appears in the location of one former stimulus. The subject must react to the black dot by pushing either of the two computer buttons indicated for the two choices, choosing the button which points to the dot. There are six different faces in the task and the facial expressions change between neutral, happy and angry. The duration of the task is 15 minutes. The task measures participant’s reaction time to push the button after the pictures vanish and the black dot appears.

ESAT: Early Screening of Autistic Traits (ESAT; Swinkels et al., 2006) is an instrument designed for the screening of ASD in young children. The ESAT consists of 14 questions based on early symptoms of autism, measuring social-communication skills, reactions to sensory stimuli, play and restricted and repetitive behaviours. The questions are answered with “yes” or “no”, and children who fail three or more items are considered to be at risk for ASD. The questionnaire is developed for screening at 14 months but it has showed value also in an age range from 8-44 months (Oosterling et al., 2009).

EQ: Empathy Quotient (EQ; Baron-Cohen & Wheelwright, 2004). The EQ is a self-report questionnaire with 40 empathy items and 20 control items. Each empathy item scores 2, 1, or 0 points (2 = respondent records the empathic behaviour strongly, 1 = respondent records the behaviour mildly, 0 = respondent does not record the behaviour). The EQ outcome scores range from zero to 80. The EQ reveals a sex difference in empathy in the general population and an empathy deficit in AS/HFA. The questionnaire is for adults of normal intelligence.

Faces in the Crowd: (Pollock et al., 2003). In this task the subject sees 12 pictures of the same face for 500ms on the computer screen (4 pictures in line, 3 pictures in a row). The subject must decide whether all 12 facial expressions are similar or whether there is one different facial expression in the crowd. After each crowd of faces, the subject reacts by pushing one of the two computer buttons indicated for ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers (yes = there is one different expression in, no = all expressions are similar). There are six different faces in the task and the facial expressions change between neutral, happy and angry. The duration of the task is 15 minutes. The task measures the subject’s reaction time to push the button i.e. to make a decision after each crowd of faces.

Faux Pas: Adult version: (Stone & Baron-Cohen, 1998; Suomennos Saarenketo & Hämäläinen, 2011). In this test the subject is read stories containing social faux pas and control stories. After each story the subject is asked questions.

FEFA: Frankfurter Test und Training des Erkennens von fazialem Affekt (FEFA; Boelte, Feineis-Matthews & Poustka, 2003) is a computer-based emotion recognition test, which investigate the face processing and the affect recognition with 50 black and white pictures of faces and with 40 black-and-white pictures of eyes presenting seven basic emotions (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and neutral). The answers are rated on 2-point scale (i.e., 0 = not correct and 1 = correct), thus the minimum score is 0 on both face and eye submodules and the maximum is 50 for the face submodule and 40 for the eye submodule. In this study we used eye submodule to examine children with ASD, their parents, control children and their parents.

IAPS: International Affective Picture System is a database of emotional pictures. The IAPS database was developed by the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida.

K-SADS-PL: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children –Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL; Kaufman, Birmaher & Brent, 1997) was used for diagnostic interviews. The K-SADS-PL is a semi-structured interview designed to assess current and past episodes of psychopathology in children and adolescents according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria via parent and child interviews. The diagnoses assessed with the K-SADS-PL included affective, psychotic, anxiety, behavioural, eating, tic and post-traumatic stress disorders as well as substance abuse and dependence. In the K-SADS-PL symptoms are rated as not present, subthreshold, or threshold. The K-SADS-PL has well-established reliability and validity (Kaufman et al., 1997). Also, the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) was used to evaluate children’s level of functioning in everyday life (e.g. at home, at school, with peers). CGAS scores range from 1 to 100, with higher scores indicating better functioning (Shaffer et al., 1983).

MMN: Mismatch negativity (MMN) component of cortical auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) reflects auditory discrimination and memory, and can be
recorded early in life. It is elicited automatically, mainly independent of one´s attention, which makes it a suitable tool to study central auditory
discrimination and short-term memory in infants, individuals with different handicaps and language disorders. Thus, MMN is a valuable tool in studying
the neural mechanisms underlying speech perception and its disorders.

NEPSY: NEPSY is a neuropsychological assessment tool for 3-12-year-old children used by psychologist to investigate children's neurocognitive development in five neuropsychological areas (i.e., Attention and Executive functions; Language; Sensomotor Functions; Visuospatial processing; and Memory and Learning) with 36 subtests (Korkman, Kirk & Kemp, 1997). We used eight NEPSY subtest to study children with ASD, their parents, control children and their parents; Memory for Faces; Visual Recognition and –Memory (not included in the American NEPSY version); Design Fluency; Verbal Fluency; Comprehension of Instructions, Comprehension of Sentence Structure (not included in the American NEPSY version), and Narrative Memory.

PSI: The Parenting Stress Index-Short-Form (PSI; Abidin, 1999) is a 36 item, Likert-type parent self-report scale (rated from 1 = I fully agree to 5 = I fully disagree) employed to evaluate parental stress (Abidin, 1999). The PSI Total stress score is a sum score (minimum 36 points and maximum 180 points) of all 36 questions. The PSI includes three subscales: Parental Distress (12 items), Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (12 items) and Difficult Child (12 items). It can be used by clinicians and researchers who work with parents and children to identify stressors that are most commonly associated with dysfunctional parenting.  The PSI was developed for use as a screening and diagnostic assessment technique. It is appropriate for parents of children as young as one month and has been used for several studies (e.g., Browne & Talmi, 2005; Mäntymaa et al., 2006; Saisto, Salmela-Aro, Nurmi & Halmesmäki, 2008) concerning parent-child relationship.

PC-ERA: The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment, Finnish version (The PC-ERA; Clark, 1980, 1985, Finnish version; Ahlqvist, 2003) is a video-taped, structured (research-observed) method to evaluate parent-infant relationship. The PC-ERA includes 64 items, which are scored on a five-point Likert-type scale (scores 1-2 = area of concern, 3 = some concern, 4-5 = area of strength), which can be divided into three scales: 1) Parental variables (29 items), 2) Infant variables (27 items) and 3) Dyadic variables (8 items). The PC-ERA has been used in several studies examining mothers’ and their interaction styles with their infants (e.g., Harel et al., 1999, Kemppinen et al., 2005 and Skovgaard et al., 2008).

SASC-R: The Social Anxiety Scale for Children–revised (SASC-R; La Greca and Stones, 1993) is 22-item self-report measure, which includes three subscales measuring a) Fear of Negative Evaluation, b) Social Avoidance, Behavioural Inhibition and Social Discomfort, and c) Generalized Social Avoidance, Behavioural Inhibition and Social Discomfort, and is employed in elementary school aged children. The SASC-R was designed to assess the construct of social-evaluative anxiety as originally conceptualized by Watson and Friend (Social Anxiety Scale for Children; SASC, 1969). The SASC-R also includes four filler items regarding children’s activity preferences. Items are rated on a five-point Likert-type scale (i.e., 1 = Not at all to 5 = All of the time). SASC-R outcome scores range from 18 to 90 and the clinical cut-off score in the Finnish version of the SASC-R is 48 (Kuusikko et al., 2009).

SCID-I: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I; Spitzer et al., 1992). SCID-I is a semi-structured interview for making the major DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses.

SPAI: Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI; Beidel et al., 1995). The SPAI is a self-report questionnaire with 45-items derived directly from the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for social phobia. All items are rated on a seven-point Likert-type scale, some of which include multiple responses (i.e., a-d). The inventory is for adolescents and adults over 15 years.

SPAI-C: The SPAI-C is a 26-item inventory derived directly from the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for social phobia. All items are rated on a three-point Likert-type scale (i.e., 0 = Never, or hardly ever; 1 = Sometimes; 2 = Most of the Time, or Always), some of which include multiple responses (i.e., a-d). The factor structure of SPAI-C includes subscales of a) Social Assertiveness, b) Fear of General Conversation, c) Physical and Cognitive Symptoms of Social Anxiety, d) Behavioural Avoidance, and e) Fear of Public Performance (Beidel, Turner & Flink, 1996). The SPAI-C outcome scores range from 0 to 52 and the clinical cut-off in the Finnish version of SPAI-C is 18 (Kuusikko et al., 2009).

SPECT:   Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography. Used in Minna Dahlström´s research

SRS:  The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS; Constantino et al., 2003) is a quantitative, informant based rating scale that generates a singular score that serves as an index of severity of autistic traits.  The SRS contains 65 items covering a wide variety of behaviors that characterize children with PDD’s across the entire range of severity in which they occur in nature. It is a parent- and/or teacher-report measure of children social impairments in naturalistic settings. The completion of the SRS takes 15-20 minutes. The items are rated on a three-point Likert-scale ranging from 0 (Not true) to 3 (Almost always true).  The measure provides also subscales representing different aspects contributing to the capability of reciprocal social behavior: social awareness (perception), social information processing (cognition), capacity for reciprocal social responses (communication), social anxiety/avoidance (motivation), and restricted and repetitive behaviors.

SQ: Systemizing Quotient (SQ; Baron-Cohen et al., 2003). The SQ is a self-report questionnaire with 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. Each systemizing item scores 2, 1, or 0 (2 = respondent records the systemizing behaviour strongly, 1 = respondent records the behaviour mildly, 0 = respondent does not record the behaviour). The SQ outcome scores range from zero to 80. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. The questionnaire is for adults of normal intelligence.

STAI-T & STAI-S: The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T&STAI-S; Spielberger et al., 1970). The STAI-T is measuring trait anxiety and The STAI-S is measuring state anxiety, both with 20 items. Questionnaires are for the participants over 15 years; the STAI-S is completed with the presence of researcher before the Dot probe –computer task. All items are rated on four-point Likert-type scale. 

STAIC-T & STAIC-S: The State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC-T& STAIC-S; Spielberger et al., 1973). The STAIC-T is measuring trait anxiety and The STAIC-S is measuring state anxiety, both with 20 items. Questionnaires are for participants under 15 years old. The STAIC-S is completed with the presence of researcher before the Dot probe –computer task. All items are rated on three-point Likert-type scale.

TAS: Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby et al., 1993). Alexithymia is a state, that a person has difficulties or total impossibility to describe his/her emotions verbally.  Persons with alexithymia usually do not know how they are feeling.  TAS-20 is a valid and reliable self-report questionnaire to measure alexithymia (Bagby et al., 1994a; Bagby et al., 1994b). It has 20 items, which can be answered by selecting the proper alternative of five (1= Not true at all, 2=not fully true, 3=cannot say, 4=fits rather well, 5=Fits absolutely. The items are made up of three factors:  Factor 1 evaluates how well the respondent can recognize his/her emotions and discriminate them from physical feelings. Factor 2 evaluates how difficult it is to describe his feelings to others. Factor 3 reports externally oriented mode of thinking. The validity of the factors has been good in numerous studies (Parker et al., 1993; Simonsson-Sarnecki, 2000), and the scale works well also in the Finnish version (Joukamaa et al., 2001).

TRF: The Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991) assesses teacher-reported emotional and behavioural problems in 6- to 18-year-old children. The TRF is widely used in both clinical and normative populations (e.g., Rescorla et al., 2007). Teachers rate children’s problem behaviours by completing 118 items assessing behavioural or emotional problems, and also assess academic performance and adaptive characteristics, during the past 2 months. Items are rated on a 3-point Likert-type scale (i.e., 0 = not true; 1 = somewhat or sometimes true; 2 = and very often true or often true). Problem items form subscales that evaluate internalizing (i.e., withdrawn, somatic complaints, and anxious/depressed) and externalizing symptoms (i.e., aggressive and delinquent behaviour) as well as social, thought and attention problems. The TRF is a component of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001).

WAIS-IV: The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) is a general cognitive ability test for adolescents and adults aged 16-90 years. The WAIS-IV includes 11 subtests which are divided into four indexes: Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI). The WAIS-IV evaluates participants’ Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) based on VCI, PRI, WMI and PSI scores, and General Ability Index (GAI) based on VCI and PRI scores.

WISC-III: The WISC-III is an individual cognitive ability test for 6 to 16-year-old children and does not require reading or writing. The WISC-III evaluates participants’ verbal, performance and full scale IQ. Verbal subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Vocabulary, and Comprehension) are oral questions without time limits except for Arithmetic. Performance subtests (Picture Completion, Coding, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly) are nonverbal problems, all of which are timed and some of which allow bonus points for extra fast work.

YSR: The Youth Self-Report (YSR; Achenbach, 1991) is a self-report measure for 11- to 18-year-old adolescents for problem behaviours. The YSR is widely used in both clinical and normative populations (e.g., Rescorla et al., 2007). The adolescents rate their problem behaviours and competencies by completing 20 assessing competencies and 120 items assessing behavioural or emotional problems during the past 6 months. Items are rated on a 3-point Likert-type scale (i.e., 0 = not true; 1 = somewhat or sometimes true; 2 = and very often true or often true). Problem items form subscales that evaluate internalizing (i.e., withdrawn, somatic complaints, and anxious/depressed) and externalizing symptoms (i.e., aggressive and delinquent behaviour) as well as social, thought and attention problems. The YSR is a component of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). 

Last updated: 9.1.2017