Sähkötaloudesta ratkaisu päästöjen hillintään

Kaksi viimeisintä IPCC:n raporttia nostavat esiin ilmastonmuutoksen hillitsemisen suuret haasteet. Kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä on saatava alas hyvin nopeasti. Tehtävä on vaikea, mutta ei mahdoton. Avainasemassa ovat energiasektori ja sen murros. Energiantuotannosta on pikaisesti tehtävä sekä fossiilivapaa että hiilineutraali. Päästötöntä energiaa – erityisesti aurinko- ja tuulivoimaa – on saatavilla maailmanlaajuisesti runsaasti. Haasteena on sen valjastaminen tehokkaaseen käyttöön. Käytännössä tämä vaatii yhteiskuntien siirtymistä kohti sähkötaloutta.

Nykypäivän sähkönkulutuksen lisäksi lämmitys, jäähdytys ja liikenne sekä teollisuusprosessit on saatava hyödyntämään sähköä perinteisten teknologioiden ja energialähteiden sijaan. Tuotteena sähkö eroaa kuitenkin olennaisesti useimmista muista tuotteista, sillä sen kulutuksen ja tuotannon on oltava reaaliaikaisesti tasapainossa. Sähkönkulutuksen joustavuutta vaaditaankin samanaikaisesti esimerkiksi power-to-x- ja erilaisten varastointiteknologioiden kehittämisen rinnalla. Useiden tutkimusten mukaan sähkön kulutukseen liittyvää hyödyntämätöntä joustopotentiaalia on tarjolla runsaasti. On esimerkiksi mahdollista siirtää paljon sähköä kuluttavia toimintoja ajankohtiin, jolloin päästötöntä sähköä on runsaasti saatavilla sekä hyödyntää rakennusten luontaista lämmön varastointikykyä nykyistä tehokkaammin.

Miten tämä joustopotentiaali aktivoidaan käyttöön? BCDC Energia -hankkeen tuoreen tutkimuksen mukaan kuluttajat ovat yhä valmiimpia ottamaan käyttöön sähkön- ja lämmönkulutuksen automaattista ja älykästä ohjausta. Ohjauksen tulee kuitenkin olla yksittäiselle kuluttajalle sekä vaivatonta että asumismukavuuden takaavaa. Sähköjärjestelmän näkökulmasta on kannattavaa, että aggregaattori eli pienkulutusta ja -tuotantoa yhdistävä toimija kytkee yksittäisten kotitalouksien tarjoamaa joustopotentiaalia suuremmiksi kokonaisuuksiksi. Näin joustopotentiaalia saadaan hyödynnettyä optimaalisesti sekä systeemin taloudellisen tehokkuuden että päästöjen vähentämisen näkökulmasta. Vaikka yksittäisen kotitalouden kulutuksen ohjauksen ja aggregoinnin teknologiaa on jo markkinoilla, on uusille teknologisille innovaatioille selkeää tilausta. Myös näiden tuotteiden kattavampi konseptointi digitaalisiksi kokonaispalveluiksi edistäisi joustopotentiaalin aktivoimista.  

Yksi sähkötalouden teknologinen haaste liittyy valtaviin informaatiovirtoihin, joiden täytyy liikkua reaaliajassa. Tuuleen ja aurinkoon perustuvassa eli sääriippuvaisessa tuotantojärjestelmässä tuotannon ajallinen vaihtelu on suurta ja siihen liittyy epävarmuutta. Kun vaihtelevaan tuotantoon yhdistetään sekä tuotannon hajauttaminen että kulutuksen ajallinen vaihtelevuus ja epävarmuus, kasvaa myös järjestelmän ylläpidon ja optimoinnin informaatiovirrat valtavasti. Informaation hallitsemiseen tarvitaan uusia teknologisia läpimurtoja, joita BCDC pyrkii tekemään muun muassa 5G-teknologian avulla.

Suomesta löytyy digitaalisen teknologian ja langattoman viestinnän eturintaman osaamista. Nopeasti etenemällä Suomella on mahdollisuus saavuttaa samanaikaisesti kotimaan ilmastopoliittiset tavoitteet, osallistua merkittävästi kansainvälisten haasteiden ratkaisuun sekä hyötyä taloudellisesti. Siirtyminen globaaliin sähkötalouteen onkin Suomelle win-win-win-tilanne. Osaammeko tarttua tähän?

Kuvituskuva: Pixabay

Suomen ilmastopaneelin varapuheenjohtaja Maria Kopsakangas-Savolainen on BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen uusi johtaja. Kopsakangas-Savolainen työskentelee Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulun ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksen (SYKE) tutkimusprofessorina.

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.9.2019 Strategisen tutkimuksen verkkosivuilla. STN-blogeissa strategisen tutkimuksen ohjelmissa työskentelevät tutkijat ja ohjelmajohtajat kirjoittavat ajankohtaisista tutkimusaiheistaan, tutkimustiedon hyödyntämisestä ja vuorovaikutuksesta sekä tutkimuksen tarjoamista ratkaisuista yhteiskunnan polttaviin kysymyksiin. Kirjoittajien näkemykset ovat heidän omiaan.

 

 

 

 

Last updated: 27.9.2019

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