Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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Hello everyone, my name is Michael Carey i am here to say a big thank you to Professor Oseamuyi who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how Professor Oseamuyi has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..professoroseamuyi@yahoo. com or his whataspp is +2348078665168     

I contacted Dr Ikhide via his E-mail ikhidespecial@gmail.com Its a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV1/2) for good four (4) years, six (6) months and twelve (12) day with my calculations, before I meet the great Dr Ikhide I am from Fresno California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus. Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatment but no improvement. I meet Dr Ikhide online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr Ikhide via his E-mail ikhidespecial@gmail.com and he did not responds to me in time and I went back to the same testimony for his mobile number and I called him immediately +1(267)527-9481 And he respond to my call. He welcome me as a daughter and I explain my four years situation to him and he said is done just as I have contacted him and I believed in him. Dr Ikhide sends me some herbal medication for herpes cure and he gave me instruction on what to do and I obeyed his instruction. Changes started after three days of applying the herbal medication. I went to the same CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for test and i was herpes negative. I do not know how to thanks Dr Ikhide for saving my life. To God be the Glory, I am living healthy with my family today.Indeed, Dr Ikhide is a great man WhatsApp him now +1(267)527-9481 God bless Dr Ikhide for his good work...

What else can I say about him, today am very grateful to him as I am finally cured of herpes disease that I have been eating me up for over a year and 6 months.After searching for different means to get my self cure but nothing seems to work out,Behold today i can boldly stand and testify to the world at large that with the help of an herbal medicine,I have found myself back to my feet and healthy again in just after few days that i got in contact with a GOD sent man,through help on a blog which talk about herpes cure,how she was cured through the herbal medicine too which was sent to her from doctor Dr Agbonhale.So i decided to give this great man a try by contacting him via his email and mobile no,explained to him what my problems his and he told me all would be fine and well by the time he his done with is own work that i just have to believe in him which i did ,low and behold,today i am very happy as it was just all like a magic that is why i have come here to testify to the world at large and also to share my experience because I know there are many people out there who are also in searching for cure to one disease or the other,you can as well get Dr Agbonhale the great now for herbal medicine help through his contact address on dragbonhaleherbalhome@gmail.com also on mobile wha'sapp no +2349073130326  as i fully believe he is able and capable also getting rid of disease like HIV/AIDS HPV CANCER ALS.   

Hi everyone my name is Anna and I have a testimony. It all started 7 months ago when my husband left me because I was not able to give birth after 6 years of marriage. When he broke up with me,I was no longer myself,I felt so empty inside me. I wondered for a long time,until a friend of mine told me about one spells caster that helped her in a similar situation that she found on a television program, She encouraged me to contact the spell caster and i emailed the spell caster and I told him my problem and I did what he asked me. To cut the story short, after some few days, my husband came back to me and told me that he's ready to wait until I'm able to give him a child. Now I'm so happy to tell anyone that is reading this testimony that I'm 9 weeks pregnant at as when this testimony was written. Which is why I will continue to  testifying about the good work he has done for me and my family. If you are in any circumstance, I urge you to contact him via the email address (dr.alusistanley@gmail.com)or WhatsApp +2348146050373 .I assure you that you his is capable to put an end to whatever situation you are facing.

Hi everyone my name is Anna and I have a testimony. It all started 7 months ago when my husband left me because I was not able to give birth after 6 years of marriage. When he broke up with me,I was no longer myself,I felt so empty inside me. I wondered for a long time,until a friend of mine told me about one spells caster that helped her in a similar situation that she found on a television program, She encouraged me to contact the spell caster and i emailed the spell caster and I told him my problem and I did what he asked me. To cut the story short, after some few days, my husband came back to me and told me that he's ready to wait until I'm able to give him a child. Now I'm so happy to tell anyone that is reading this testimony that I'm 9 weeks pregnant at as when this testimony was written. Which is why I will continue to  testifying about the good work he has done for me and my family. If you are in any circumstance, I urge you to contact him via the email address (dr.alusistanley@gmail.com)or WhatsApp +2348146050373 .I assure you that you his is capable to put an end to whatever situation you are facing.

Hello i'm so happy sharing this,I still can't thank you enough powerful Priest Ade,My husband left  for a younger lady because i was unable to give birth due to PCOS,I was so devastated i was lonely i cried a lot i even tried taking my life, Then my friend told me about this great man Priest Ade who helped her made her marriage perfect,I also went online and did more research about him i was not too sure but i decided to give him a try he told me not to worry everything was going to be alright,He told me all i needed to pay which was a convenient fee and i did and he did his work and sent me video proof and told me to wait 24hrs that he will be back,The next morning to my greatest surprise it was shawn my husband on his knees begging i'm so happy,It didn't stop there,I'm proud to say that i'm 3 weeks pregnant thank you so much Priest Ade i'm forever grateful  ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com  https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me WhatsApp +2347059715465

DR NKOSI THE BEST AND GENUINE LOVE SPELL CASTER BRING BACK MY EX WIFE. Greetings readers out there, I’m 34 years old. My wife left me 3 months ago, and i love her so much, i have been looking for a way to get her back since then. i have tried many options but she did not come back, so i searched for help online and I came across Dr Nkosi website www.fastsolutiontemple.com, I felt I should give him a try..I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it, then he did a reuniting love spell for me, 24hours later, my wife came to me and apologized for the wrongs she did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. me and my wife are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Nkosi solution temple . If you have any problem contact Dr.Nkosi now and i guarantee you 100% that he will help you..you can also call him or add him on whatsapp: +27820502562,his email: fastsolutiontemples26@gmail.com

Hello everyone, my name is Michael Carey i am here to say a big thank you to Professor Oseamuyi who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how Professor Oseamuyi has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..professoroseamuyi@yahoo. com or his whataspp is +2348078665168     

24 HOURS LOVE SPELL CASTER 2020   I feel very happy to share my great and wonderful testimony with everyone on this platform..: I was married for 7 years to my husband and all of a sudden another woman came into the picture he started hating me and he was abusive and all because i never bear him a child. but i still loved him with all my heart and wanted him at all cost.... He filed for divorce and my whole life was turning apart and i didn't know what to do, he moved out of the house and abandoned me all alone,one day a very close friend of mine told me about trying spiritual means to get my husband back,so i went online to search and i came across so many spell caster who only wasted my time and took a lot of money from me,but i went back to her and told her that spiritual way has only taking my money and not yielding anything, and she introduced me to a spell caster, Dr gbojie, so i decided to try it. although i didn't believe in all those things because of what i have gone through lately, i contacted Dr gbojie  and he  explain all my problems to him and he told me that i shouldn't worry that when he cast the spell on me and my husband that my husband is going to run back to me and that within 2 weeks am going to get pregnant,so i did the little he ask me to do and behold it all work out,my husband run back to me and right now we have Twins Girl and a boy,so all thanks to Dr gbojie  you're indeed a great spell caster, in case anyone needs help here,  whatsapp him now +2349066410185 or email him : gbojiespiritualtemple@gmail.com  Website :   http://gbojiespiritualtemple.website2.me  

PROFESSIONAL SPELL CASTER WHO CAN HELP YOU WITH LOVE-SPELL TO GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK URGENTLY AFTER BREAKUP/DIVORCE EVEN IF YOUR SITUATION SEEMS HOPELESS! CONTACT: INFINITYLOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM IS CERTAINLY THE BEST SPELL CASTER ONLINE AND HIS RESULT IS 100% GUARANTEE..  After 3 Years in a relationship with my Boyfriend, my Boyfriend started going out with other girls and showing me cold love, on several occasions he threatens to broke-up with me if I dare question him about his affair with other girls, I was totally devastated and confused until an old friend of mine told me about a spell caster on the internet DR GREAT who help people with their relationship and marriage problem by the powers of love Spells, At first I doubted If such thing ever exists but decided to give it a try, When I contact him, he told me everything I needed to do and I did and he helped me cast a Love Spell and within 28Hours my boyfriend came back to me and started apologizing, now he has stopped going out with girls and he is with me for good and for real. Contact this Great spell Caster for your relationship or marriage problem.  Here's his contact.. CALL/WHATSAPP: +2348118829899 EMAIL: infinitylovespell@gmail.com  OR  infinitylovespell@yahoo.com   WEBSITE: http://infinitylovespell.website2.me/   BLOG http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

THE MOST GENUINE SPELL CASTER ON EARTH WHO SPECIALIZE IN LOVE SPELLS..THIS IS A TESTIMONY HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK AND HE ISN'T CHEATING ANYMORE.. MY NAME IS "ISABELLA LUCAS" I'm so excited my broken Marriage has been fixed and restored.. My husband is back after he had left me and our 2 kids and moved to D.C with another woman.. When he left me and moved to be with the woman, I truly and really do love him with all I've got and been heartbroken, I have to deal with a lot of depression and needing medical attention having had two heart attack after he left me... Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really so hurt and i needed a lot of help anywhere I can find. Then i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested Dr okoso ( OKOSOTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM )can help me get my husband back with a love spell.. So I felt i give him a try. I contacted him and he gave me some spell instructions which I did,, then he did a (Love spell) on my husband. 48 hours later, my husband called me to apologize and that he's coming back home..OMG I couldn't believe, the spell was so fast and then when I got home from work,He was back, he promised he would love me till death and not part with me or the kids again...I want this testimony to inspire everyone around the world who need help in their relationship or marriage..Please contact him Dr okoso the spell caster~ OKOSOTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM Or call him/WhatsApp +2348104720961

Hello, I am Grace Edomnd. After being in relationship with my husband foryears, he broke up with me. I did everything within my reach to bring himback but all was in vain, I wanted him back so badly because of the love Ihad for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused.I explained my problem to my friend and she suggested that I should rathercontact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back ,I had no choice than to try it. I messaged the spell caster, and he assuredme there was no problem and that everything will be okay before three days.He cast the spell and surprisingly on the second day, my husband called me.I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was sosorry for everything that had happened He wanted me to return to him. Healso said he loved me so much. I was so happy and went to him that was howwe started living together happily again. The spell casters email is :ehichioyaspelltemple@gmail.com. You can email him if you need his assistance inyour relationship or any other Case. Or WhastApp him on +2348057508654                                                                                           1) Love Spells                                                                                                 2) Lost Love Spells 3) Divorce Spells4) Marriage Spells5) Binding Spell.6) Breakup Spells7) Banish a past Lover8.) You want to be promoted in your office/ Lottery spell9) want to satisfy your loverContact this great man if you are having any problem for a lasting solutionthrough ehichioyaspelltemple@gmail.com

I want to use this opportunity to thank this great man called Dr. Ehi Care for what he has done for me and my family. This great man has brought happiness and joy back again to me and my family. Dr. Ehi Care has used his great power to help me bring back my husband within the period of 48 hours and also helped me in getting pregnant with his powerful prayers and after 7 days of applying his herbs.This is more than words can say, at first i didn't believe it but today it is so true and all thanks goes to him. i will advice every one out there that has a similar issue, and also any one who is willing to get his or her lover back and any one who wants to get pregnant quick to contact this wonderful man today and forever remain happy in life. email: ehigreathome@gmail.com or what's App Number +2349052626929

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