Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

Out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks. Am HUNCHO from NY, USA. My wife divorced me year 2017 and went back to her EX husband. I felt heart broken and weak for i didn't know how to get her back. I did all i could do to get her back through my close friends and family members but nothing worked out. So, in my place of work, i tried searching for help online on how i can get her back and i found various testifiers of how a Doc named uzoya has been faithful & helpful with his spells. I gave it a try by getting in touch with him on his Email ( Driraborspellcaster@gmail.com ) and i explained my problem to him. Doc uzoya prepared a spell for me that brought back my wife within 48 Hours after i contacted him. Doc uzoya assured me that nothing can break us apart again and since 2018 till this moment, i have been full of joy with my wife. You out there that needs help why not contact him today and be happy again. Call him on +1 (301)-909-8775 OR  for more info. FB.ME/DRUZOYALOVESPELL

Hello my name is Sally my finance broke up with me last week i was so sad I changed completely, I wasn't eating and i wasn't talking to anybody, I cried a lot,I was so depressed and stressed out that I was scared I'm going to end up in the hospital because of all the stress and depression until one day i search online on getting love tips because I Love & care about him deeply and I just want us to be together as a couple again and I want us to last forever then i found a powerful spell caster Called Priest Ade that he solved so many relationship problem then Priest Ade told me he will come back to me between 24hrs after he cast spell on him never believe it until my finance called me on the phone and told me he want us to come back and live happily together forever , Am so happy now that Priest Ade help me bring my finance back to me. Thanks so much Priest Ade  he can also help you Email him at  ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com  https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me WhatsApp +2347059715465

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470 This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me.... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually me t this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please i want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, i advice you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tell is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470  or   https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/  

My husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. Thank you Dr bante  for saving my broken Marriage. Dr. Bante is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine. Email him now today. Email him: bantespelltemple@gmail.com or Call or text him on WhatsApp: (+2349063962262  website; https://bantespelltemple.webs.com   ...

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470 This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me.... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually me t this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please i want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, i advice you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tell is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470  or   https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/   ,,,,

When I found Dr. Paul I was in desperate need of bringing my ex lover back. He left me for another woman. It happened so fast and I had no say in the situation at all. He just dumped me after 3 years with no explanation. I contact Dr.Paul through his website and He told me me what i need to do before he can help me and i did what he told me to, after i provided what he wanted, he cast a love spell to help us get back together. Shortly after he did his spell, my boyfriend started texting me again and felt horrible for what  he just put me through. He said that I was the most important person in his life and he knows that now. We moved in together and he was more open to me than before and then he started spending more time with me  than before. Ever since Dr. Paul helped me, my partner is very stable, faithful and closer to me than before. I highly recommends Dr. Paul to anyone in need of help. Email: astoriashrine@ gmail com, Call him or add him on whatsapp via: +2349051441669         

HOW I GOT MY EX HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR DIDII want to tell you all that i was able to put an end to my divorce issue and restore my marriage again, because i never wanted it to happen. i don't know what came over my husband that he was filling for divorce, i tried to talk to him out of it when he told me and he didn't listen to me, i had no other option than to seek for the help of a spell caster and now am glad I did. Because if not for the help of spell, i don't know what would have become of me by now because i loved my husband so much that i couldn't stand loosing him. i saw a post on a "love and relationship forum" about a spell caster who helps people to cast spell on  marriage and relationship issues, when i contacted this spell caster via  email, he helped me cast a re-union spell and my husband changed and came  apologizing to me and the kids. Contact this great spell caster for your  relationship or marriage issues   (drdidisolutiontemple@gmail.com or whatsapp +2349018958016) to know more about him visit his website https://drdidisolutiontemple.weebly.com https://mariabill803.blogspot.com/   https://drdidisolutiontemple.weebly.com/testimonies.html that's how  i got the help to restore my marriage by dr didi.  

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Hello i am here to spread this good news to the entire world on how i got my ex love back.I was going crazy when my love left me for another girl last month,But when i meet a friend that introduce me to DR IROSI the great messenger to the oracle that he serve,I narrated my problem to DR IROSI about how my ex love left me and also how i needed to get a job in a very big company.He only said to me that i have come to the right place were i will be getting my heart desire without any side effect.He told me what i need to do,After it was been done,In the next 2 days,My love called me on the phone and was saying sorry for living me before now and also in the next one week after my love called me to be pleading for forgiveness,I was called for interview in my desired company were i needed to work as the managing director..I am so happy and overwhelmed that i have to tell this to the entire world to contact DR IROSI at the following email address DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM and get all your problem solve..No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him direct on DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM or call his mobile number or add him up on whatsapp via (+2348118829771). and get your problems solve like me.    

Hello i am here to spread this good news to the entire world on how i got my ex love back.I was going crazy when my love left me for another girl last month,But when i meet a friend that introduce me to DR IROSI the great messenger to the oracle that he serve,I narrated my problem to DR IROSI about how my ex love left me and also how i needed to get a job in a very big company.He only said to me that i have come to the right place were i will be getting my heart desire without any side effect.He told me what i need to do,After it was been done,In the next 2 days,My love called me on the phone and was saying sorry for living me before now and also in the next one week after my love called me to be pleading for forgiveness,I was called for interview in my desired company were i needed to work as the managing director..I am so happy and overwhelmed that i have to tell this to the entire world to contact DR IROSI at the following email address DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM and get all your problem solve..No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him direct on DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM or call his mobile number or add him up on whatsapp via (+2348118829771). and get your problems solve like me.    

POWERFUL LOVE SPELLS AND LOST LOVE SPELLS TO BRING BACK LOST LOVER +1(424)-261-8520 I've gotten back with my ex boyfriend with the help of Dr.Larry the best spell caster online and i highly recommends Dr.Larry to anyone in need of help!.. I want to testify of how i got back my boyfriend after he breakup with me, we have been together for 3 years, recently i found out my boyfriend was having an affair with another Girl, when i confronted him, it led to quarrels and he finally broke up with me, i tried all i could to get him back but all to no avail until i saw a post in a relationship forum about a spell caster who helps people get back their lost love through Love spell, at first i doubted it but decided to give it a try, when i contacted this spell caster via his email, and he told me what to do and i did it, Then he did a Love spell for me. 48 hours later, my boyfriend really called me and told me that he miss me so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day, with lots of love and joy, and he apologized for his mistake. Then from that day, our relationship was  now stronger than how it were before, Dr.Larry is a powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help  his children in the time of trouble, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com you can also contact his Website: http://assurancesolutioncenter.website2.me/     WhatsApp +1(424)-261-8520

How to have your husband back home with your kids again I'm a lady with 2 kids i am from Houston Texa, my husband leave me and his 2 kids for about 10 months i go through a lot of pain i do all i could to make him returned to me and to his kids but nothing works out. it was really a stressful period to me because i could dint go through the heartbreak. i was told to get a love spell doctor contacted to help me out which i did i was lucky to get DR.PEPOKO Contact who was able to help me out, he cast up a love spell that brought back my husband to me and to his kids thanks so much DR. PEPOKO I really appreciate what you have done for me. here he his contact if you may required for it by solving your relationship email. Pepokospiritemple@gmail.com call whatssap +2348156148821 Here is also Dr. PEPOKO website you can visit it yourself www.pepokospiritemple.blogspot.com

Hello, my name is Sara am from England. I would like to say a special thanks to Dr Olokun for saving me, i got cured from HIV disease with his powerful magical healing spell. Friends, I was HIV patient for 15 years, I saw a testimony on how Dr Olokun cured people from HIV, diabetes, hypoglycemia, herpes and other deadly disease, i did not believe that he could cure me from HIV i have spent so much on medicine. I contacted this man and behold i had a completely new beginning and then i realized that nothing ventured is nothing gained. Sad enough deception from the medical doctors who overshadows English medicine to magic healing spells not knowing magic healing spell is more potent, effective and defiles all medical diagnoses. Kindly contact Dr Olokun If you have any problems that requires urgent solution, you have 100% chance to get permanent solution, my personal and family life is a living testimony and thankful that there are still such persons on the face of this earth.His contact Email: drolokun23@gmail.com and he is always able to help you get your heart desire...I will keep on writing and posting testimonies about your good work on the Internet.Thank you sir Contact Email: drolokun23@gmail.com

I just want the whole world to know about this spell caster I met two weeks ago, wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com I cannot say everything he has done for me my wife left me 3 years ago left with my kids I was going through online when I meant this wonderful man's testimony online I decided to give it a try and my wife is back to me now and we ar1e happily married again cause is too much to put in writing all I can say is thank you very much am very happy .and does alot of spell including Love Spell Death Spell Money Spell Power Spell Success Spell Sickness Spell Pregnancy Spell Marriage Spell Job Spell Protection Spell Lottery Spell Court Case Spell Luck Spell etc. In case you need his help contact him on this email address wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com he is a good man thanks.whatsapp number +234813 648 2342

There is usually an underlying reason for a sudden change in behavior. It's something you may have to figure out if you want to win him or her back, and if it's something that can be resolved or not. Often, it may be a sudden incident or stress in a person's life that causes them to act this way. There's also a chance that a third party may have been involved, as these are among the common reasons for someone to break up with their partners but in my case my husband chose to leave me for no single fault of mine as he was under spiritual powers which his secretary at the office used on him to take him away from me and the kids  but thank god baba bola came to my rescue, i saw a testimony about his powers in fixing relationship and marriage issues and i reach out to him, dr bababola helped me to remove all the evil manipulation that was placed on my husband and made him come back home to me and the kids with his power spell. Thank you baba bola for bringing my husband back to me . contact baba bola now via bababolahealinghome@ gmail. com for faster communication you can reach him on whatsapp via +2349059610643 thanks  

Urgent effective love Spell caster to help you bring back ex lover & save your marriage fast, (drogunsnya@gmail.com) is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee!..a whole lot of people are still suffering from all manner of issues of life. What is that particular thing that bothers you? Sometimes, the problem is not the problem but the problem is the inability to identify those who have the solution. I'm Chloe Elizabeth from Edinburgh United Kingdom and I like to introduce you to Dr ogunsnya a man who is come to rescue humanity from all issues of life. Ever since the day I had an encounter with him, that was the day my problem got terminated. When wisdom is blinking, it becomes a word for the wise. I would encourage you to relate whatsoever problem you are facing with Dr ogunsnya and be rest assured that with God all things would work together for your good. You can contact Dr ogunsnya via email: (drogunsnya@gmail.com) I congratulate you as you do so, indeed you are the next testifier.you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2347064365391

Urgent effective love Spell caster to help you bring back ex lover & save your marriage fast, (drogunsnya@gmail. com) is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee!..a whole lot of people are still suffering from all manner of issues of life. What is that particular thing that bothers you? Sometimes, the problem is not the problem but the problem is the inability to identify those who have the solution. I'm Chloe Elizabeth From Edinburgh United Kingdom and I like to introduce you to Dr ogunsnya a man who is come to rescue humanity from all issues of life. Ever since the day I had an encounter with him, that was the day my problem got terminated. When wisdom is blinking, it becomes a word for the wise. I would encourage you to relate whatsoever problem you are facing with Dr ogunsnya and be rest assured that with God all things would work together for your good. You can contact Dr ogunsnya via email: (drogunsnya@gmail. com) I congratulate you as you do so, indeed you are the next testifier.you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2347064365391

My name is kimberly, and I base in USA...My life is back!!! After 1 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids . I felt like my life was about to end i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time. Thanks to a spell caster called Dr,KABATO, which i met online. On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet,I came across allot of testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. i also come across one particular testimony,it was about a woman called Sonia,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days, and at the end of her testimony she dropped Dr.KABATO e-mail address.which was:drkabatospelltemple@gmail.com After reading all these,I decided to give it a try. I contacted him via email: drkabatospelltemple@gmail.com and explained my problem to him. In just 48hours, my husband came back to me. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before Dr.KABATO, is really a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man... If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems for you. Try High PRINCE DR.KABATO anytime, he might be the answer to your problems. Here's his contact: drkabatospelltemple@gmail.com

I want to say a big thanks to Dr kabaka for the wonderful work he did for me last week, I have been on heartbreak with my husband i was in the middle of losing my husband and my two children. Before my friend told me about Dr kabaka and his wonderful love spell work, Although i never believed on spell but i decided to give it a trier, i contacted kabaka on his email: drkabakaspiritualtemple@gmail.com He told me what i needed to do which i did. today is the 4th days now and my husband and i are back together and we living happily and it still seems like a dream to me. i will advice anyone in need of help to contact this great man. call or whatsapp +2349015857861.

Hi everyone I'm barbara and am here to share the wonderful work Dr uneme did for me. After 5 years in marriage with my husband with 2 kids, my husband started acting weird and going out with other ladies and showed me cold love, on several occasions he threatens to divorce me if I dare question him about his affair with other ladies, I was totally devastated and confused until a old friend of mine told me about a spell caster on the internet called Dr. uneme who help people with relationship and marriage problem by the powers of love spells, at first I doubted if such thing ever exists but decided to give it a try, when I contact him, he helped me cast a love spell and within 48hours my husband came back to me and started apologizing, now he has stopped going out with other ladies and his with me for good and for real. Contact this great love spell caster for your relationship or marriage problem to be solved today via email: unemespellben@gmail.com or Call or WhatsApp: +2348143813120

How i got back my ex husband after he left me and our kids” I suggest you read my testimony. I'm Tracy Mattingly from united state, I'm so excited my husband is back after he left me for another woman. My husband was having an affair with a co-worker and i love my husband so much but he was cheating on me with his co-worker and this girl i think use witchcraft or black magic on my husband to make him hate me and this was so critical and uncalled-for, I cry all day and night for God to send me a helper to bring back my husband! I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex-boyfriend back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it, then he did a love spell for me. 11hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me so much, Oh My God! i was so happy, and today i am happy with my man again and we are joyfully living together and i thank the powerful spell caster Dr.Unity, he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the here. if you are here and your Lover is turning you down, or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact Dr.Unity for help now..Here’s his contact Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com or Call/Whats-app: +2348055361568 ,website:https://drunity.simplesite.com

Am Lizzy Dixon from Canada, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Chief He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my husband who left me, When i contacted Chief he cast a love spell for me, and my husband who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. he is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken relationship back. because i am now happy with my husband. To anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, Chief can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his email chiefdrlucky@gmail.com call or add him on whats-app with his phone number +2348132777335 Website: http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/   

GREAT LOVE SPELL CASTER PRIEST WISDOM THAT HELP ME SAVE MY RELATIONSHIP.TEXT OR ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP: +2348124644470  My name is CLARA JAMES .i want to give thanks to PRIEST WISDOM for bringing back my ex husband.No one could have ever made me believe that the letter I’m about to write would actually one day be written. I was the world’s biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like this, but I was told by a reliable source (a very close co-worker) that Trust is a very dedicated, gifted, and talented person,It was one of the best things I have ever done. My love life was in shambles; I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just couldn't face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband didn’t seem to care. and he brake up with me again.I was confuse and do not no what to do again,rather them to get in contact with PRIEST WISDOM . He did a love spell that make my husband come back to me. we are now very much happy with our self. PRIEST WISDOM make him to realize how much we love and need each other.This man is for REAL and for good.he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very, very well,in our love life.contact email Supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or his web page   https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/     text or add him up on whatsApp at: +2348124644470 .........///.....

HOW DO I GET MY DIVORCE EX HUSBAND BACK IMMEDIATELY Hello I'm Edna Willing-ham From New Jersey, I feel so joyful today because of the help Dr KEKE ODIN has rendered to me for getting my Husband back with his spell. I have been married for 4 years and it has been so terrible because my husband was cheating on me and was seeking for a divorce. But when i came across Dr KEKE ODIN Email on the internet posted by a lady he helped, i decided to get in touch with him and i explained my situation to him and then seek his help. To my greatest surprise he told me that he will help me with my case for there is no problem without a solution. Here i am celebrating because my Husband is back home and am really enjoying my marriage, what a great celebration. i will keep on testifying on the internet because Dr KEKE ODIN is truly a real spell caster. Contact Dr KEKE ODIN now if you are facing any challenges in your relationship life. Email greatkekespelltemple@gmail.com Also specialize in1) love Spell2) Spells divorce3) Spells of marriage4.) pregnancy problems5)Best Mega Lotto Spell contact this great man if you have a problem for a lasting solution via greatkekespelltemple@gmail.com

MY STORY OF HOW DR OSABA HERBAL MIXTURE ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 10.5 INCHES hello i am Tom sullivan from belgium but residing in the united state of america …i have been having sexual battles with my wife in my marriage because of my small penis and it was really so embarrassing imagine a grown up man of 39 years old having a small dick…i could not satisfy her and she threatened to cheat on me if i do not find a way..i searched for cure and results but none of them avail..i even used online pills,vaccines,drugs,herbal herbs but still no result so i was about going penis Sugery when i read about this great herbalist called Hr OSABA ..i quickly message him and he got back to me within 30 mins and told me all i need to do ,,i followed all his instructions and he sent down his herbal cream through UPS SERVICE to me and gave me instruction on how to apply it and within two weeks i was Beginning to feel myself …i now measure 10.5 inches long in erection and 8.0 girth fat …my wife is so proud and happy with me now..All thanks to DR OSABA for saving my marriage ..i am 100% grateful to you sir .NOTE he also have herbal remedies to problems like 1.LOW SPERM COUNT 2.PREMATURE EJACULATION 3.ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION 4.DIABETES CURE 5.HIV/AIDS CURE 6.CANCER CURE 7.GENITAL HERPES CURE 8.STROKE 9.HEART FAILURE so if you are out there and need such help please contact him on drosabacurehome@gmail.com or visit his whatsapp +2347062606817

Just wanna say a big thank you Neme Amber for introducing me to Dr Emmanuel the great HERBALIST that helped me prepare home remedies that cured my herpes (HSV 2). I was infected with HSV 2 for the past two years and i was unable to get a better job cos all the company i was to get employed checked our blood test and found out that i was positive to GENITAL HERPES and i loosed employment. So i was desperate to get a cure so that i can live normal and get my job training. i earlier made some research and i contacted some doctors online but they keep on asking for money for courier after that they'll tell you that tax and so more so i became broke and frustrated. One day i was less busy so i decided to make latest research on herpes cure and i found a site  were everyone was talking about DR Emmanuel and herbs ability to cure herpes. So i discussed with Neme Amber and she explained to me that its very easy working with Dr Emmanuel so i contacted DR Emmanuel via email ( nativehealthclinic@gmail.com ) and he helped me just as he has helped others now im cured and different medical centers has tested me and approved me cured. so i decided to thank Neme Amber cos she made it possible for me. and i can also assure you that he can also help you. so if you need the service of DR emmanuel, ill put his details here so that you can easily get in touch wif him. his email: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or WhatsApp him at +2348140073965. instagram ig:@dremmanuel2 my Name is Grace from US,once again thanks to Neme Amber. im fucking hapy....  

Hello I'm cambell by name, I'm giving a testimony about Dr.Emmanuel the great Herbalist, he has the cure to all manner of diseases, he cured my herpes disease, though I went through different website I saw different testimonies about different spell casters and herbalist, I was like: 'Many people have the herpes cure why are people still suffering from it?' I though of it, then I contact Dr. Emmanuel via email, I didn't believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try, he replied my mail and Needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared it (CURE) and sent it to Airfreight Online Courier Service for delivery, he gave my details to the Courier Office, they told me that 3-5 days I will receive the package and i took the medicine as prescribed by him and I went for check-up 2 weeks after finishing the medicine, I was tested herpes negative, if you are herpes positive do me a favor for you to contact him and I will try my possible best to make sure you get cured, when you contact him, make sure you tell him that I referenced you.. contact him via: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2348140073965 or IG:@dremmanuel2

i was 3 years ago diagnosed of fibroid and complicated Endometriosis. My medical condition was heart broken because it was causing my menstrual cramps,bloating before menstrual periods,lower abdominal pressure which result to heavy periods. I was subjected to different medications by my doctor for treatment such as Coenzyme Q10,ibuprofen, Danazol and many more. Despite my visit to several doctors my health wasn't getting better, all they could say was surgery. At the verge of giving up, I went to the internet to search for a treatment at least. But I found a cure instead. In the internet, I read a testimony of a lady who had Fibroid. She shared an e-mail address of the Doctor. Luckily everything seemed to be okay after I took the Herbal Medicine. I wish I could say that’s the end of it because I haven't had any symptoms since then. Do not expose yourself to more danger, use a herbal remedy that is safe and effective. If interested contact him via email address: Drgodstimehealinghome@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2349063469910

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK HOME WITH THE HELP OF A REAL AND GENUINE SPELL CASTER DR IKHILE TEXT OR CONTACT VIA WHATSAPP +27789518085 My name is TAYLOR am from united state, I almost took my life because of my husband who left me and stop picking my calls answering my mails and my messages. He said He do not trust me anymore, I tried to convince and beg him, but he will not believe or answer me until we had a fight and broke up for 6months, after then I realize I can not live without him because of the love I have for him. I tried everything possible to get him back, but non worked for me, some fake spell casters scammed me and went away with my money until I came across this man called Dr Ikhile he helped me cast a spell and behold my husband came back after 48 hours, begging me for forgiveness, I was so surprised that spell caster like Dr Ikhile still exist. If anyone here needs some help, with all sincerity, contact Dr Ikhile today Website:http://solutiontemples.com Email solutiontemple27@gmail.com or Contact him via is whatsapp number +27789518085 indeed you are a priest thank you for making my home a happy home again.i can never stop talking about you sir. DR Ikhile is really a great man you can contact in any solution for any kind of problems like (1) lottery spell (2) ex back (3) get pregnant (4) cure for any kind of sickness,disease and infection And many others contact this great man today and get your Problems solved 100%. Website:http://solutiontemples.com Email solutiontemple27@gmail.com Call & Whatsapp +27789518085

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK HOME WITH THE HELP OF A REAL AND GENUINE SPELL CASTER DR IKHILE TEXT OR CONTACT VIA WHATSAPP +27789518085 My name is TAYLOR am from united state, I almost took my life because of my husband who left me and stop picking my calls answering my mails and my messages. He said He do not trust me anymore, I tried to convince and beg him, but he will not believe or answer me until we had a fight and broke up for 6months, after then I realize I can not live without him because of the love I have for him. I tried everything possible to get him back, but non worked for me, some fake spell casters scammed me and went away with my money until I came across this man called Dr Ikhile he helped me cast a spell and behold my husband came back after 48 hours, begging me for forgiveness, I was so surprised that spell caster like Dr Ikhile still exist. If anyone here needs some help, with all sincerity, contact Dr Ikhile today Website:http://solutiontemples.com Email solutiontemple27@gmail.com or Contact him via is whatsapp number +27789518085 indeed you are a priest thank you for making my home a happy home again.i can never stop talking about you sir. DR Ikhile is really a great man you can contact in any solution for any kind of problems like (1) lottery spell (2) ex back (3) get pregnant (4) cure for any kind of sickness,disease and infection And many others contact this great man today and get your Problems solved 100%. Website:http://solutiontemples.com Email solutiontemple27@gmail.com Call & Whatsapp +27789518085

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