Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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Hi everyone I'm Olivia Hannah and am here to share the wonderful work Dr Raypower did for me. After 5 years in marriage with my husband with 2 kids, my husband started acting weird and going out with other ladies and showed me cold love, on several occasions he threatens to divorce me if I dare question him about his affair with other ladies, I was totally devastated and confused until a old friend of mine told me about a spell caster on the internet called Dr. Raypower who help people with relationship and marriage problem by the powers of love spells, at first I doubted if such thing ever exists but decided to give it a try, when I contact him, he helped me cast a love spell and within 48hours my husband came back to me and started apologizing, now he has stopped going out with other ladies and his with me for good and for real. Contact this great love spell caster for your relationship or marriage problem to be solved today via email: Urgentspellcast@gmail.com or Urgentspellcast@yahoo.com or Call or WhatsApp: +14243308109.  Read more about him on his website: http://urgentspellcast.website2.me/

I wants to let the world know about DR_AKHIGBE the Great spell caster that brought back my HUSBAND to me when i thought all hope was lost. Doctor_AKHIGBE used his powerful spell to put a smile on my face by bringing back my HUSBAND back to me with his spell, at first i thought i was dreaming when my HUSBAND came back to me on HIS knees begging me to forgive HIM and accept HIM back and even since then, HE loves me more than i ever expected. So i made a vow to my self that i will let the World know about Dr_AKHIGBE because he is a God on earth. Do you have problems in your relationship ? have your partner broke up with you and you still love and want him back ? Do you have problem with your finance ? or do you need help of any kind then contact Dr_AKHIGBE today for i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you just as he helped me. Email doctorakhigberemedie@gmail.comCall/whatsapp +2347011935631He also cast spells like Ex-back,  love spell, binding spells, lottery,work promotion, pregnancy, marriage. You can as well follow him on IG @dr_akhigbe_remedies11 He also cure anytype of deadly sicknesses and diseases! website; https://doctorakhigberemed.wixsite.com/doctorakhigberemedie  

Spell To Make Him Come Back Crying.. WhatsApp +2347052593229 I came across a website that suggested that Lord Spiritual can help fix broken marriages and get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!!that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it was before, All thanks to Lord Spiritual. His so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Lord Spiritual is a real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Email address: ancientspelltemple12@gmail com lord.spiritual@yahoo com ancientspelltemple.blogspot.com WhatsApp him directly +2347052593229

Spell To Make Him Come Back Crying.. WhatsApp +2347052593229 I came across a website that suggested that Lord Spiritual can help fix broken marriages and get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!!that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it was before, All thanks to Lord Spiritual. His so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Lord Spiritual is a real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Email address: ancientspelltemple12@gmail com lord.spiritual@yahoo com ancientspelltemple.blogspot.com WhatsApp him directly +2347052593229

Spell To Make Him Come Back Crying.. WhatsApp +2347052593229 I came across a website that suggested that Lord Spiritual can help fix broken marriages and get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!!that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it was before, All thanks to Lord Spiritual. His so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Lord Spiritual is a real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Email address: ancientspelltemple12@gmail com lord.spiritual@yahoo com ancientspelltemple.blogspot.com WhatsApp him directly +2347052593229

I NEED A LOVE SPELL THAT WILL MANIFEST WITHIN 24 HOURS CONTACT (DR JUMBA ) HE HIS THE BEST LOVE SPELL CASTER WHO HELPED ME RESTORE HAPPINESS BACK TO MY RELATIONSHIP  Hello everyone i want to testify of the great and powerful spell caster named Dr Jumba who brought back my ex who left me and got engaged to another girl,We where happy together when all of a sudden he just change he used to call me every morning and and night before going to bed but all that stopped when i call him he yell at me and told me he didn't want to have anything to do with me anymore i was so sad and confused i didn't know what to do then i went online to search on how to get back my ex then i found  an article where someone was talking about how the great and powerful Dr Jumba helped her and she left his email address i took it and contacted him i told him my problem he only smiled and told me to relax everything will be OK i did everything he asked me to do  and he assured me that after 24hrs he will be back,To my greatest surprise the next morning it was my boyfriend he came back knelling and begging for me to accept him back now we are so happy together he can also help you contact him at   wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com or  wiccalovespelltools@yahoo.com   text or call him +19085174108   website :  http://wiccalovespelltools.website2.me/  BLOG : https://manifest277.blogspot.com/

i couldn’t believe that i would ever be re-unite with my ex-lover, i was so traumatize staying all alone with no body to stay by me and to be with me, but i was so lucky one certain day to meet this powerful spell caster,after telling him about my situation he did everything humanly possible to see that my lover come back to me,indeed after casting the spell my ex-lover came back to me less than 48 hours,my ex-lover came back begging me that he will never leave me again,3 months later we got engaged and married,if you are having this same situation just contact powerful spell caster on his email: drkutaherbalcenter@gmail.com or Whats App him through +2347054547814

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470 This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me ... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually met this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470  https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/ ........

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MY TESTIMONY IS ALL ABOUT HOW THIS SINGLE EMAIL: (https://ormanspritualist.blogspot.com/) CHANGED MY MARITAL HOME AND BRING BACK MY EX HUSBAND............ My name is Sheila Lyons, am from Texas, U.S.A, I made a promise to tell others the wonderful work of he who brought my ex Husband back to me. His name is Dr. ORMAN, who is a spell doctor and was able to bring back my ex. My ex left me the very day she meet her friend in my place of which, unknowingly to he, I had nothing to do with he. He grew furious at the very sight of his friend and I was confused if he was initially mad with he.Days into weeks and weeks into months, my ex girlfriend did not speak a word to me as she went away. So I started contemplating on what to do? That was how i contacted Great Dr. ORMAN on the Internet who after some procedures and progress, brought back my ex within 48hrs. Words are not enough to express my feelings of what Dr. ORMAN has done for me. He really lifted a heavy load off my chest. To all those out there, please don't think your situation is too primitive or too hard and complicated for anyone to understand or solve. Contact doctor TONY and find joy once again,contact him on; orman.spiritualist3002@gmail.com you can also talk to him on +905398102247 https://ormanspritualist.blogspot.com/

Spell To Make Him Come Back Crying.. WhatsApp +2347052593229 I came across a website that suggested that Lord Spiritual can help fix broken marriages and get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!!that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it was before, All thanks to Lord Spiritual. His so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Lord Spiritual is a real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Email address: ancientspelltemple12@gmail com lord.spiritual@yahoo com ancientspelltemple.blogspot.com WhatsApp him directly +2347052593229

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