Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I'm so excited my broken Marriage has been restored my ex husband is back after he left me and our 2kids for another woman. i was so happy to met Dr. OKu how he help many people to bring there Lover back so i contact him to help me too. that was how Dr. Oku help me to bring my husband back.. A big thank to you Dr. Oku because I never thought my ex Husband will be back to me so quickly with your spell. You are the best and world greatest. if you are here and you need your Ex Lover back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact:Email him at: okutemple@gmail.com You can also Call/WhatsApp:+2347053113465

I am 26 years old from Israel, My situation is a little different, Me and my ex were dating over 3years however we broke up on March 26th this year We got in a huge fight after seeing his chat with other girls, I said some mean things and he ended the relationship with me he was distancing himself and wouldn’t really make plans with me anymore Mind you before we started dating we were best friends for a year, We didn’t talk for 3 weeks until we ran into each other at a concert, He was a little drunk, so i took care of him he texted me the next morning and we talked for a bit i asked him if he wanted to see the new Dead pool movie and he response was maybe he then said maybe some space would do us good and never to see each other again he told me when he saw me that he didn’t love me like that anymore, Do you think i have a chance here? Until i saw a post of one man call Dr Fayosa a powerful and trustful spell caster i contacted him and i explained all my problems to him and he promised to help me and he said his spell work within 48hours, After some days i did everything he asked me behold on the second day i received a call from my ex and he told me when we breakup the we makeup that he still love me so much and he wanted us to come back we both plan to meet and am happy now because we are both happily together without any fight we got married April this year, Am using this means to inform everyone in the similar problem to trouble their self no more i advised you to contact Dr Fayosa for fast help and a peaceful life Email: (Fayosasolusionhome@gmail.com) or directly on whats-app +2348151918774

I am 26 years old from Israel, My situation is a little different, Me and my ex were dating over 3years however we broke up on March 26th this year We got in a huge fight after seeing his chat with other girls, I said some mean things and he ended the relationship with me he was distancing himself and wouldn’t really make plans with me anymore Mind you before we started dating we were best friends for a year, We didn’t talk for 3 weeks until we ran into each other at a concert, He was a little drunk, so i took care of him he texted me the next morning and we talked for a bit i asked him if he wanted to see the new Dead pool movie and he response was maybe he then said maybe some space would do us good and never to see each other again he told me when he saw me that he didn’t love me like that anymore, Do you think i have a chance here? Until i saw a post of one man call Dr Fayosa a powerful and trustful spell caster i contacted him and i explained all my problems to him and he promised to help me and he said his spell work within 48hours, After some days i did everything he asked me behold on the second day i received a call from my ex and he told me when we breakup the we makeup that he still love me so much and he wanted us to come back we both plan to meet and am happy now because we are both happily together without any fight we got married April this year, Am using this means to inform everyone in the similar problem to trouble their self no more i advised you to contact Dr Fayosa for fast help and a peaceful life Email: (Fayosasolusionhome@gmail.com) or directly on whats-app +2348151918774

Quel monde méchant. Ma femme a voyagé et a dit à mon fils et à moi qu'elle partait pour un voyage d'affaires uniquement pour que nous découvrions qu'elle était dans la maison d'un homme, j'étais tellement choquée car elle a dit qu'elle n'allait rester que 2 semaines et c'est un mois maintenant et nous étions tous inquiets avec l'aide de drafridherbalhome11 @ gmail. com i et mon fils ont pu avoir accès à son téléphone sans sa notification nous radio indépendante, benin citya tout ce qui s'est passé et tous les appels qu'elle a reçus avant de quitter la maison et la plupart de ses SMS supprimés qu'elle a supprimés ont également été récupérés par ce grand hacker et j'ai vu beaucoup de choses et je savais qu'elle me trompait, mais pour le moment, je ne peux plus supporter cette honte, j'ai donc choisi de passer à autre chose avec mon fils avec toutes les preuves dont je suis sûr que le divorce sera un succès, Merci DRAFRIDHERBALHOME11@GMAIL.COM pour l'aide et le soutien. s'il vous plaît, les gars ne font pas beaucoup confiance à votre conjoint pour savoir ce que votre mari ou votre femme fait chaque fois qu'elle n'est pas à la maison. ce hacker est là pour vous aider comme il l'a fait pour moi

my great testimony on how i conceive With the help of a man called Dr Charles I was able to get pregnant. I'm 39, it was really difficult for me to conceive, I was diagnosed with PCOS and premature ovarian failure but after many years of trying, I came across Dr Charles I bought a pregnancy herbs (natural ingredents ) from him and he sent it to me through UPS and after I used it as he instructed, I fall pregnant two weeks latter I'm 7 months pregnant now. Also I will like to advice anyone looking for help to GET PREGNANT to contact this very man, his prayers/guidelines and herbs are effective. his email address: drcharlesspell@gmail.com website: https://drcharlesspell.wixsite.com/drcharles WhatSApp: +2348146708557

Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection cant cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of herpes, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr. voodoo herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with HIV for the past 7 years but Dr. voodoo cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs. He is also a spell caster, he cast spell to restore broken marriages and he cast good luck spells to prosper and excel in life. Contact Dr voodoo on Whatsapp or call him +2348140120719 OR email him voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com

I'm Sandra form, USA After 7years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California last month to be with another woman, I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again, i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart every night, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband, Every time i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Fayosa can help get ex back fast So, I felt I should give him a try, I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it all then he did a Love spell for me, 48hours later just as Dr Fayosa said my husband called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing that he said he will come back home the next day, with lots of love and joy and he apologized for his mistake and for the pain he caused me and the kids, Then from that day our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Fayosa he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr Fayosa is real powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now Here’s his contact Text or call Dr Fayosa With (Fayosasolusionhome@gmail.com) or directly on whatssapp +2348151918774, thank you so much Dr Fayosa

Good day to you all from United State,I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last eight years and had constant pain, especially in my private parts. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B diabetes) by this Man Dr OMOLOWA and she also gave the email address of this man and advise me to contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr OMOLOWA telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man, few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as Dr OMOLOWA assured me ,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed, behold it was TRUE, email Dr OMOLOWA on : (dr.omolowa@gmail.com ) call/Whatsapp him with +2347014035034

Powerful Love Spell- Get Your Ex Wife/Husband Back Urgently.., I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, his name is Hamisi he helped me recently to reunite my Marriage back with my wife who left me, When i contacted Hamisi he cast an urgent love spell for me, and my wife who said she doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. she is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken marriage/relationship back. because i am now happy with my wife. to anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, hamisi can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, urgent love spell,Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his for more info, whatsapp/call...+27783477646

I just want to share my experience with the entire world on how i got my husband back and saved my marriage… I was married for 10 years with 4 kids and i have been living happily with my family until things started getting ugly with me and my husband that leads us to fights and arguments almost every time… it got worse at a point that my husband filed for divorce… I tried my best to make him change his mind & stay with me cause i loved him with all my heart and didn't want to loose my husband but everything just didn't work out… He moved out of the house and still went ahead to file for divorce… I pleaded and tried everything but still nothing worked. The breakthrough came when someone introduced me to this wonderful, great spell caster called Dr AKHIGBE, Who eventually helped me out… I have never been a fan of things like this but just decided to try it because I was desperate and left with no choice… He did the spell for me and things really work out as he promise and my husband have a change of mind and come back home to stay with me and the kids. And promise never to hurt me again. we are living happily as it was with the help of Dr AKHIGBE. If you are in need of help you can contact Dr AKHIGBE. Email Drakhigbespellhome7@gmail.com  or call him via : +2349021374574

I want to thank of great Dr. Todd he brought my boyfriend back to me. i had seen many people to get him back but nothing, Dr. Todd gave me a consultation and told me all truth, and I trusted Dr. Todd and had him do the spells for me. it took awhile because it was very very messy between us. i had to wait for each spell to do its work. but once the last spell finally was working and the other spells had worked, that is when he called. we met. then it took many more meetings. but now we are back together and i can only thank Dr.Todd, he is the greatest, i will come to Dr. Todd for life. Todd took care of me like family. contact; manifestspellcast @ gmail. com manifestspellcast.wordpress.com WhatsApp:+1 604 901 9747

My husband and I have been married for about 7 yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore. Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that DR OGBAMIKHUMI can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to DR OGBAMIKHUMI . If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his  nubmer ;+2348079027993 Email him at greatsolutionhome12@gmail.com He can also render help on the following1. HEPATITIS A,B,C 2. HERPES 1/2 3.DIABETES 4.STROKE. 5.HIV/AIDS HERBAL CURE, STDS and STI 6. MARRIAGE COUNSELLING 7.LOVE SPELL CASTING 8.JOB PROMOTION SPELLS 9.MARITAL PROBLEM 10.MAGIC MONEY SPELLS   11. lotto spell 12. promotion spell 13. protection spell 

I want to thank of great Dr. Todd he brought my boyfriend back to me. i had seen many people to get him back but nothing, Dr. Todd gave me a consultation and told me all truth, and I trusted Dr. Todd and had him do the spells for me. it took awhile because it was very very messy between us. i had to wait for each spell to do its work. but once the last spell finally was working and the other spells had worked, that is when he called. we met. then it took many more meetings. but now we are back together and i can only thank Dr.Todd, he is the greatest, i will come to Dr. Todd for life. Todd took care of me like family. contact; manifestspellcast @ gmail. com manifestspellcast.wordpress.com WhatsApp:+1 604 901 9747

Sveiki visi, laba diena, noriu tiesiog pasidalyti apžvalga apie tai, kas nutiko man ir mano dėdei praėjusį mėnesį. kai pamaniau, kad visa tai mačiau, bet daktaras Sambo leido man žinoti, kad gyvenime yra daugiau. Aš turėjau paprasčiausią herpes virusą HSV2, o mano dėdė buvo patikrintas ŽIV. daug laiko praleidome stengdamiesi išsigydyti, kol susisiekiau su gydytoju Sambo dėl pagalbos. vos per 21 dieną jo augalinis vaistas išgydė mane ir mano dėdę, jis vis dar neįtikėtinas man ir kitam mano šeimos nariui. tai stebuklas. Aš nežinau, kaip dar galiu įvertinti dr. Sambo už jo darbus, išskyrus pasidalinti savo apžvalga, kad kiti galėtų pamatyti. El. paštas: (divinespellhome@gmail.com) Dr Sambo WhatsApp jam dabar +2348145810121. Taip pat galite apsilankyti jo svetainėje http: //DrSambo443.website2.me Dievas laimina gydytoją Sambo už jo gerą darbą ...

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