Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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Hello viewers around the Globe, I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr, OLHIA and i decided to contact him on his website i saw on the :https://olihamiraclemedicine.webs.com/ so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer, and i had to settle out with my Ex girlfriend Ella, i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr OLIHA I also learn that Dr OLIHA also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr OLIHA now for help on his email {oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com} or whats app him number: +2349038382931

DR Akioya Penis Enlargement Cream and pills has been used by men around the world This is the only Male enlargement supplement that has been PROVEN to enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY. Full Penis Enlargement Cream and pills when used will; * Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches * Increase in penis width by 20%. * Helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation. * Achieved longer, rock hard erections * All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent. Penis Enlargement Cream and pills is also: * 100% Herbal, 100% Safe * Very Discrete packaging and billing * 100% Satisfaction Guarantee ,We have the highest quality products Worldwide to improve your Love Life and your Fitness & Well being. We offer excellent value for money and provide you with a fast, efficient and friendly service. We supply men with alternative Herbal Medicine for ailments like Impotence (Erectile dysfunction),premature ejaculation, Fertility problems and other serious issues manhood Contact us right non via whatsapp him +23481052527464 or Email Drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com you can checkout is website; http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

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True love is the only key to be successful relationship and married when my husband left me heartbroken I was so lonely and i was so frustrated confused desperate i do all I can't to have my husband back home with me and the kids nothing work out luckily as i was browsing I saw people sharing a testimony of a great man call @DrbowsolutionHome1 for the help he did for them. I decided to try i contacted Dr bow Home he told me never to be worried again that my husband is going to be back with me within 48 hours I never believe to my greatest surprise my husband called me within 48 hours and start begging me for forgiveness for the pain him have cost me with the kids my husband is now back home with me and my family I am forever grateful for your help and saving my marriage sir ( Drbowsolutionhome@gmail.com ) OR WhatsApp +2348121786772  

I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the INTERNET about this specialist called Dr, osemuhau  and decided to contact him on his email: drosemuhau@gmail.com) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer, and i had to settle out with my Ex girlfriend JOY, i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr osemuhau  I also learn that Dr osemuhau   also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr osemuhau   now for help on his email ( drosemuhau@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348168714427  )   https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Osemuhau-Herbal-Medicine-111115653769173 

i want to  inform the public how i was cured of herpes  Virus by a Doctor called Dr ishiaku. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on Herpes and i saw comment of people talking about how Doctor ishiaku cured them. I Was scared because i never believed in the Internet but i was convince to give him a try because i was having no hope of been cured of herpes so i decided to contact him on his email, i searched his email on net and i saw a lot of people testifying about his goodness. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem, my HERPES result came out negative. You can contact him on his Email: ishiakuherbalcure@gmail.com or whatsapp him via +2348180828544  and get all your problem solved. 1)Sickness of any kind 2)Help to CURE Hepatitis B, herpes, HIV/AIDS CANCER and BIPOLAR 3)Divorce, Breakup problem and To Re-unit 4)Pregnancy problem 5)Financial problem and Job promotion 6)To get a good and rich life partner 7)To Lose your wrath 8)to enlargement of manhood

Let us unit together and eradicate HERPES... Anyone who still thinks there is no cure for herpes should deviate from it because Dr.Momoh Herbal Cure who owns an herbal business has found a cure. He uses roots & herbs to cure these diseases. I am a living testimony. He cured my herpes permanently and helps my daughter in getting pregnant after 10 years of bareness. He said he also has cure to hepatitis B, Cancer, Diabetic, STD, HPV, erectile problem, epilepsy and other diseases. email him:DRMOMOHHEALERTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM Whatsapp: +2348166979481.

hello everyone here i want to tell the whole world about Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream ...Dr AKIOYA penis enlargement herbal cream in Africa.This is the only Male Penis Enlargement Cream has been used by men around the world like USA,CANADA,AUSTRALIA,BELGIUM,SWEDEN,GERMANY,UK,SINGAPORE,MALAYSIA AND SO MANY MORE supplement that has been PROVEN to-enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY.Full Dr AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream when used will Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches Increase in penis width by 20%helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation.Achieved longer, rock hard erections All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent Full AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream is also:100% Herbal, 100% Safest with no side effect and its of two types I have the one for enlargement and for reduction and your advised to use it by message 100% Satisfaction and Money Back Guarantee. DR. AKIOYA , About my products i have herbal cream and oil 100% Permanent Guaranteed resulting it on your body where you feel you want to reduce or enlarge which will help you to be strong and you get the desirable size you want-within 3-5 days and when you get your desirable size you are advised to stop using it and the results you gain will remain permanent We also do deliveries all over AFRICA, and worldwide so i would like to know first when do you need the product.for more information call or whatsapp Dr.AKIOYA +2348105257464 email drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or visit his website http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ NOTE DR SALATO OF AFRICA ALSO HAVE HERBAL REMEDIES TO TO SICKNESSES OR DISEASES BELOW PENIS ENLARGEMENT,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART,LOW SPERM COUNT,WEAK ERECTION,BREAST ENLARGEMENT,PROSTRATE CANCER,HIV/AIDS SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL, ALS, HPV 123,PILE,ASTHMA,HEART FAILURE,PREMATURE EJACULATION,HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE.

Can penis been enlarged? These questions has been asked so many time but I want you to no it possible to enlarge your penis, all you have to do is to follow the simple steps and guide line that is giving to you and you will get your good result.. Enlargement cream... Enlargement pills..... Enlargement liquid Both male and female.... For more information contact me via what's app@+2348121847014 or email me Droisemudiamenherbalhome@gmail.com droisemudiamenherbalhome@yahoo.com... https://m.youtube.com/channel/UCIXARvEG-r2pm1VTeMNJCpwhttps://www.facebook.com/Penis-enlargement-111223220731302/

I am so Happy to be writing this article in here, i am here to explore blogs forum about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS . I was positive to the deadly Virus called HERPES and i lost hope because i was rejected even by my closet friends. i searched online to know and inquire about cure for HERPES and i saw Dr Tebor testimony online on how he was cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact the great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via UPS and it got to me after 14 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i'm so happy! that’s the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more can be saved just like me! and if you need his help,contact his Email now (Teborherbalcenter@mail.com) or contact him on whatsApp number +2349059544255 you can also visit him on his website,,,,https://teborherbalcanter.wordpress.com

How I Got My Ex Husband Back..Am so excited to share my testimony of a real spell caster who brought my husband back to me. My husband and I have been married for about 6 years now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone else. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Aluya can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and and told him my problems and he told me what to do and i did it and he did a spell for me. 48 hours later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Aluya Powerful Love Spell that really works. If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you. He will not disappoint you. Email him at: aluya.48hoursspelltemple@gmail.com. or whatsapp him on: +2348055431163

Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION ,the reason why most people are finding it difficultto enlarge Penis is because they bedlieve on medicalreport, drugs and medical treatment which is nothelpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge your Penis permanently Contact Dr Olu via Email : Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com or via WhatsApp : +2348140654426 for Natural root and herbal remedies put together to help you get Enlarge and Erect healthy. Thank you. Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION ,the reason why most people are finding it difficultto enlarge Penis is because they bedlieve on medicalreport, drugs and medical treatment which is nothelpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge your Penis permanently Contact Dr Olu via Email : Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com or via WhatsApp : +2348140654426 for Natural root and herbal remedies put together to help you get Enlarge and Erect healthy. Thank you.

Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr Biya cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr Biya the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his whatsApp number at +2348111856507 or email: drbiyajatto@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Biya that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via : drbiyajatto@gmail.com. or WHATSAPP +2348111856507 GOD BLESS YOU ALL.

Greetings to the general public, I want to tell about how I was cured of HIV disease by a Doctor called Dr. voodoo . I was browsing the Internet searching for remedy on HIV and I saw a comment of people talking about how Doctor voodoo cured them. I was scared because I never believed in the Internet but i was convince to give him a try because i having no hope of been cured of HIV so I decided to contact him with his email that was listed on the comment voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com when I contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that I took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem, my HIV result came out negative. I pray for you Dr. voodoo God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being sincere and great men. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem Email: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com or Add him up on WhatsAp +2348140120719

First, I want to complement this page administrator for creating this platform for us to express our feelings. Herpes is a serious and recurring disease which can't be cured through drugs or injections by the American doctors but the best way to deal with herpes is by taking natural herbs medicine from DR. ISHIAKU the greatest herbalist doctor in the world and is only few American doctors that know about this herbal medicine from Dr ISHIAKU .. I have read about Dr ISHIAKU the great herbalist doctor from African who can cure disease with his powerful herbal medicine. for the people suffering from the following diseases, Herpes,HIV/Aids, Cancer, Also, Hepatitis, Diabetes, Hpv, Infections ETC should contact him for his herbal medicine because i am a living testimony and i was cured of herpes. Although, i sent him what he requested and he sent me his medicine through DHL courier delivery company which i took for some days and today when i went for test, i was tested herpes negative. you can reach him through his  WhatsApp him at +2348180828544

Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr Biya cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr Biya the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his whatsApp number at +2348111856507 or email: drbiyajatto@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Biya that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via : drbiyajatto@gmail.com. or WHATSAPP +2348111856507 GOD BLESS YOU ALL.

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