Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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GREAT LOVE SPELL CASTER PRIEST WISDOM THAT HELP ME SAVE MY RELATIONSHIP.TEXT OR ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP: +2348124644470  My name is CLARA JAMES .i want to give thanks to PRIEST WISDOM for bringing back my ex husband.No one could have ever made me believe that the letter I’m about to write would actually one day be written. I was the world’s biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like this, but I was told by a reliable source (a very close co-worker) that Trust is a very dedicated, gifted, and talented person,It was one of the best things I have ever done. My love life was in shambles; I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just couldn't face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband didn’t seem to care. and he brake up with me again.I was confuse and do not no what to do again,rather them to get in contact with PRIEST WISDOM . He did a love spell that make my husband come back to me. we are now very much happy with our self. PRIEST WISDOM make him to realize how much we love and need each other.This man is for REAL and for good.he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very, very well,in our love life.contact email Supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or his web page   https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/     text or add him up on whatsApp at: +2348124644470

This is the most wonderful thing i have ever experience in my life, My name is chayan sharma, I never thought I will smile again, My husband left me with two kids for one year, All effort to bring him back failed and i was desperate to bring him back home I thought I'm not going to see him again not until I met a lady called Miller on Facebook who told me about a spell caster called Dr.Wealthy, She gave me his email address and mobile number and I contacted him and he assured me that within 48hours my husband will come back to me, i feel happy already when i had that from him, In less than 48hours my husband came back started begging for forgiveness saying it is the devils work, so I'm still surprise till now about this miracle, because it just too real to be real I know so many lady are at there with the same problem of my but i tell you today that there is a solution for it.for anyone who need his help here it is Email adress; (wealthylovespell@gmail.com )or Whatsapp him on +2348105150446

Hello everyone my name is Sophie,i am from Canada I feel very happy to share my great and wonderful testimony with everyone on this platform..: I was married for 4 years to my husband and all of a sudden another woman came into the picture he started hating me and he was abusive and all because i never bear him a child. but i still loved him with all my heart and wanted him at all cost.... He filed for divorce and my whole life was turning apart and i didn't know what to do, he moved out of the house and abandoned me all alone,one day a very close friend of mine told me about trying spiritual means to get my husband back,so i went online to search and i came across so many spell caster who only wasted my time and took a lot of money from me,but i went back to her and told her that spiritual way has only taking my money and not yielding anything, and she  introduced me to a spell caster,drgurulovespelltemple@yahoo.com, so i decided to try it. although i didn't believe in all those things because of what i have gone through lately,i contacted the Doctor and explain all my problems to him and he told me that i shouldn't worry that when he cast the spell on me and my husband that my husband is going to run back to me and that within 3weeks am going to get pregnant,so i did the little he ask me to do and behold it all work out,my husband run back to me and right now we have Twins boy and a girl,so all thanks to Dr Guru you're indeed a great spell caster, in case anyone needs help here is his email address; drgurulovespelltemple@yahoo.com His spells is for a better life OR whatsapp him now +2349023365076

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Grand marabout et prêtre des sorciers vaudou au bénin, voyant et roi des vaudou, spécialiste des problèmes de couple et de tout travaux occulte vaudou, vous qui avez des problèmes sans aucun résultat, une voyance claire et gratuite de papa TAGNON qui vous aide à résoudre tous vos problèmes rapide et définitif, rituel de retour affectif très rapide en 7 jours, retour affectif le plus efficace de votre aimé, quelque soit votre situation, problèmes de mariage,déception amoureuse, infidélité entre époux, mettre fin à la divorce, protection contre la sorcellerie et les mauvais sorts, vous vous sentez menacer par votre entourage, problèmes avec votre patron, votre patron vous a renvoyer de service, avoir plus de chance dans les affaire, devenir riche par la puissance vaudou, protection contre les mauvais esprits, vous ne vous sentez par aimer par les autres, vous cherchez un travail urgent, Contactez moi pour tous vos problèmes et vous serez satisfaire au plus vite. CONTACT MAITRE TAGNON E-mail: dahtagnon@hotmail.com Tel/ whatsapp:+229 98 83 03 64 Site web: https://www.puissant-rituelretouraffectif.com/

Hello Readers: My name is papa great doctor of Africa) am a great online herbal doctor and spell caster fully recognised all over the globe. I can cure any disease: like....Cancer, HIV, HPV, Syphilis, Diabetes, Herpes, Anthrax, Madness and low spam count I also specialised in the following kinds of spell casting... (1)Spell to bring your ex lover back (2)Pregnancy spell (3)Death spell (4)Spell to make someone fall in love with you even against his or her own wish (5)Office promotion spell (6)Protection against evil attack spell (7)Salary increment spell (8)Beauty spell (9)Spell to get your scammed money back (10)Money ritual spell and many more I have been a successful online herbal doctor and spell caster for the past 25years. If you need an urgent help then you can contact me via my email papalspelltemple@gmail.com or via my WhatsApp number+2347015701260 or call +233578500631 you can still call if want i...may the gods be with you all....

I'm here to testify about the good work Dr Fasoya did for me, I have problems with my marriage that lead to devious and the same time I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the past 4 years and had constant pain, especially in my knees, During the first year my husband left me to meet another woman due to the stress, I had faith in God that i would be healed and my husband will come back to me someday, This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, weeks ago i came across a testimony of a lady on the internet testifying about a Man called Dr Fasoya on how he restore her broken relationship and she also gave the email address of this man and advise anybody to contact him for help for any kind of sickness and relationship problems that he would be of help, so I contacted him telling him about my problems and he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured and my husband will return back to me within a 48hours, Well i never believed it until he work for me, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me and this time my husband have come back to me just as Dr Fasoya assured me of his words and good work, after sometime i went to my doctor to confirmed my health condition if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, the test came out negative, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other kind of problems at all you can contact Dr Fasoya for help via Email: (Fayosasolusionhome@gmail.com) Or directly on whats-app +2348151918774

I'm so excited my broken Marriage has been restored my ex husband is back after he left me and our 2kids for another woman. i was so happy to met Dr. OKu how he help many people to bring there Lover back so i contact him to help me too. that was how Dr. Oku help me to bring my husband back.. A big thank to you Dr. Oku because I never thought my ex Husband will be back to me so quickly with your spell. You are the best and world greatest. if you are here and you need your Ex Lover back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact:Email him at: okutemple@gmail.com You can also Call/WhatsApp:+2347053113465

I am 26 years old from Israel, My situation is a little different, Me and my ex were dating over 3years however we broke up on March 26th this year We got in a huge fight after seeing his chat with other girls, I said some mean things and he ended the relationship with me he was distancing himself and wouldn’t really make plans with me anymore Mind you before we started dating we were best friends for a year, We didn’t talk for 3 weeks until we ran into each other at a concert, He was a little drunk, so i took care of him he texted me the next morning and we talked for a bit i asked him if he wanted to see the new Dead pool movie and he response was maybe he then said maybe some space would do us good and never to see each other again he told me when he saw me that he didn’t love me like that anymore, Do you think i have a chance here? Until i saw a post of one man call Dr Fayosa a powerful and trustful spell caster i contacted him and i explained all my problems to him and he promised to help me and he said his spell work within 48hours, After some days i did everything he asked me behold on the second day i received a call from my ex and he told me when we breakup the we makeup that he still love me so much and he wanted us to come back we both plan to meet and am happy now because we are both happily together without any fight we got married April this year, Am using this means to inform everyone in the similar problem to trouble their self no more i advised you to contact Dr Fayosa for fast help and a peaceful life Email: (Fayosasolusionhome@gmail.com) or directly on whats-app +2348151918774

I am 26 years old from Israel, My situation is a little different, Me and my ex were dating over 3years however we broke up on March 26th this year We got in a huge fight after seeing his chat with other girls, I said some mean things and he ended the relationship with me he was distancing himself and wouldn’t really make plans with me anymore Mind you before we started dating we were best friends for a year, We didn’t talk for 3 weeks until we ran into each other at a concert, He was a little drunk, so i took care of him he texted me the next morning and we talked for a bit i asked him if he wanted to see the new Dead pool movie and he response was maybe he then said maybe some space would do us good and never to see each other again he told me when he saw me that he didn’t love me like that anymore, Do you think i have a chance here? Until i saw a post of one man call Dr Fayosa a powerful and trustful spell caster i contacted him and i explained all my problems to him and he promised to help me and he said his spell work within 48hours, After some days i did everything he asked me behold on the second day i received a call from my ex and he told me when we breakup the we makeup that he still love me so much and he wanted us to come back we both plan to meet and am happy now because we are both happily together without any fight we got married April this year, Am using this means to inform everyone in the similar problem to trouble their self no more i advised you to contact Dr Fayosa for fast help and a peaceful life Email: (Fayosasolusionhome@gmail.com) or directly on whats-app +2348151918774

Quel monde méchant. Ma femme a voyagé et a dit à mon fils et à moi qu'elle partait pour un voyage d'affaires uniquement pour que nous découvrions qu'elle était dans la maison d'un homme, j'étais tellement choquée car elle a dit qu'elle n'allait rester que 2 semaines et c'est un mois maintenant et nous étions tous inquiets avec l'aide de drafridherbalhome11 @ gmail. com i et mon fils ont pu avoir accès à son téléphone sans sa notification nous radio indépendante, benin citya tout ce qui s'est passé et tous les appels qu'elle a reçus avant de quitter la maison et la plupart de ses SMS supprimés qu'elle a supprimés ont également été récupérés par ce grand hacker et j'ai vu beaucoup de choses et je savais qu'elle me trompait, mais pour le moment, je ne peux plus supporter cette honte, j'ai donc choisi de passer à autre chose avec mon fils avec toutes les preuves dont je suis sûr que le divorce sera un succès, Merci DRAFRIDHERBALHOME11@GMAIL.COM pour l'aide et le soutien. s'il vous plaît, les gars ne font pas beaucoup confiance à votre conjoint pour savoir ce que votre mari ou votre femme fait chaque fois qu'elle n'est pas à la maison. ce hacker est là pour vous aider comme il l'a fait pour moi

my great testimony on how i conceive With the help of a man called Dr Charles I was able to get pregnant. I'm 39, it was really difficult for me to conceive, I was diagnosed with PCOS and premature ovarian failure but after many years of trying, I came across Dr Charles I bought a pregnancy herbs (natural ingredents ) from him and he sent it to me through UPS and after I used it as he instructed, I fall pregnant two weeks latter I'm 7 months pregnant now. Also I will like to advice anyone looking for help to GET PREGNANT to contact this very man, his prayers/guidelines and herbs are effective. his email address: drcharlesspell@gmail.com website: https://drcharlesspell.wixsite.com/drcharles WhatSApp: +2348146708557

Effective and powerful love spell and lottery spell caster Dr Jumba    Life is always beautiful when you are with the true person you love. For almost a year my lover had broke up with me and I was lonely and sad cuz I really do love my partner, luckily I was directed to a very kind and Great spell caster Dr Jumba  who helped me to bring back my lover to me and today I am with him now and happy together.... Am very grateful for what you have done for me Dr Jumba, I promise to make sure the whole world get to know about this great spell caster....he also specialize on other spells like lottery spell,Protection Spell,Court Case Spell, Love spell, Email him via wiccalovespelltools@yahoo.com or wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com . you can text or call his number +19085174108  website :   https://drjumbaspellhome.wordpress.com

Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection cant cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of herpes, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr. voodoo herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with HIV for the past 7 years but Dr. voodoo cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs. He is also a spell caster, he cast spell to restore broken marriages and he cast good luck spells to prosper and excel in life. Contact Dr voodoo on Whatsapp or call him +2348140120719 OR email him voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com

I'm Sandra form, USA After 7years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California last month to be with another woman, I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again, i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart every night, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband, Every time i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Fayosa can help get ex back fast So, I felt I should give him a try, I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it all then he did a Love spell for me, 48hours later just as Dr Fayosa said my husband called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing that he said he will come back home the next day, with lots of love and joy and he apologized for his mistake and for the pain he caused me and the kids, Then from that day our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Fayosa he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr Fayosa is real powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now Here’s his contact Text or call Dr Fayosa With (Fayosasolusionhome@gmail.com) or directly on whatssapp +2348151918774, thank you so much Dr Fayosa

Good day to you all from United State,I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last eight years and had constant pain, especially in my private parts. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B diabetes) by this Man Dr OMOLOWA and she also gave the email address of this man and advise me to contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr OMOLOWA telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man, few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as Dr OMOLOWA assured me ,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed, behold it was TRUE, email Dr OMOLOWA on : (dr.omolowa@gmail.com ) call/Whatsapp him with +2347014035034

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