Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

adriantucker04@gmail.com

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It’s obvious some patient with HERPES are been enslaved to the antiviral and other supplementary Orthodox medicine just to help suppress the virus and not a cure. I have been with the virus since 2019 until I was introduce by a blogger who also narrated Her story online on how she was cured of Herpes after using Dr SHAIBU ABACHA Herbal Medicine. This is a year and 2 weeks since I was delivered from Herpes. All thanks to God for using this Great herbalist to heal me. I have promise to keep telling good about this great traditional herbal healer, Please feel free to share Your problems with him. Thanks. Write him via call or whatsapp him on +2349051727475 or email drshaibuabacha@gmail.com . he also cure other sickness such as: (1) HERPES, (2) DIABETES, (3) HIV&AIDS, (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION, (5) HEPATITIS B, (6) IMPOTENCE, (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY (8) DIARRHEA (9) ASTHMA… AND MORE 

I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past one years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr patrick and she also gave the email address: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. patrick telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the doctor assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email:: dr.patrickherbalhome@mail.com or whatsApp his number on +2348055367947      

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

I’m so happy to testify of the good work of Dr. patrick I Suffer from Herpes virus since 2007 and i had frequent symptoms in my private area, after some time it will go away after using acyclovir drugs, then come back after some months. it was disheartening since i have been diagnosed, but after finding Dr. patrick and his reviews i was convinced that he will definitely cure me and so i contacted and he told me how to get his medicine and using it for just 14 days and i will go and check up and first i said how can that be possible but i used his herbal medicine after making purchase and truly i used it and went for the test again, and my result came back negative. so i made it a task to share this good testimony in the internet so that those sick can benefit and get cured. What app or call:+2348055367947  Email:dr. patrickherbalhome@gmail.com.,.,...                  

I’m so happy to testify of the good work of Dr. patrick I Suffer from Herpes virus since 2007 and i had frequent symptoms in my private area, after some time it will go away after using acyclovir drugs, then come back after some months. it was disheartening since i have been diagnosed, but after finding Dr. patrick and his reviews i was convinced that he will definitely cure me and so i contacted and he told me how to get his medicine and using it for just 14 days and i will go and check up and first i said how can that be possible but i used his herbal medicine after making purchase and truly i used it and went for the test again, and my result came back negative. so i made it a task to share this good testimony in the internet so that those sick can benefit and get cured. What app or call:+2348055367947  Email:dr. patrickherbalhome@gmail.com.,.,..                  

Using herbal natural remedy was what got me tested negative to HSV 2 after been diagnosed for years.I have spend so much funds on medications like acyclovir (Zovirax), Famciclovir (Famvir), and Valacyclovir (Valtrex). But it was all a waste of time and my symptoms got worst. To me It is very bad what Big pharma are doing, why keep making humans suffer greatly just to get profits annually for medications that doesn't work. I'm glad that herbal remedies is gaining so much awareness and many people are getting off medications and activating their entire body system with natural herbal remedies and they are become holistically healed totally. Quickly contact Dr Akhere herbal now. email him directly on drakhereherbalhome017@gmail.com

it all started when i had a big fight with my husband we path ways but we were both shy to file for divorce. i called him several times. but it dawned on me that i still love him and he does too. but i felt something was holding him back. after several search i contacted dr maway. Within 17 hours Dr maway gave advice and cast a spell for me and within 48 hours i got back my man without a sweat. i later discovered that she put a root on my man. she had been stalking him for a while. Any way i will warn you to be careful there are many spell casters out there but none with my experience is able to match the power of the great spell caster Dr maway

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

I want to thank Dr OSATO for the help he has rendered to me by getting Rid of my Herpes. I was Diagnosed in July 2018 but after the Usage of Dr OSATO Herbal Medicine, I was cured from Herpes and the virus was completely gone from my body. The Symptoms of the Herpes Virus is completely Gone.. So anyone who is having the virus should contact Dr OSATO to give you the herbal medicine to cure yourself. Dr Osato also have the cure for different types of diseases like HERPES, HIV, HSV1&2, DIABETES, CANCER, HPV ect. You can contact Dr Osato on email: osatoherbalcure@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him +2347051705853. His website is osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com

PENIS ENLARGEMENT CURE FOUND IN AFRICA  whatsapp Dr.HARRY  +2349036417079  email drharrysolution@gmail.com or visit his websitehttps://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple       hello everyone here i want to tell the whole world about Dr HARRY herbal mixture cream ...Dr HARRY penis enlargement herbal cream in Africa.This is the only Male Penis Enlargement Cream has been used by men around the world like USA,CANADA,AUSTRALIA,BELGIUM,SWEDEN,GERMANY,United Kingdom ,SINGAPORE,MALAYSIA AND SO MANY MORE supplement that has been PROVEN to-enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY.Full Dr HARRY  Penis Enlargement Cream when used will Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches Increase in penis width by 20%helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation.Achieved longer, rock hard erections All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent Full Dr HARRY  Penis Enlargement Cream is also:100% Herbal, 100% Safest with no side effect and its of two types I have the one for enlargement and for reduction and your advised to use it by message 100% Satisfaction and Money Back Guarantee. DR. HARRY  , About my products i have herbal cream and oil 100% Permanent Guaranteed resulting it on your body where you feel you want to reduce or enlarge which will help you to be strong and you get the desirable size you want-within 3-5 days and when you get your desirable size you are advised to stop using it and the results you gain will remain permanent We also do deliveries all over AFRICA, and worldwide so i would like to know first when do you need the product.for more information call or whatsapp Dr.HARRY  +2349036417079  email drharrysolution@gmail.com or visit his website   https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    NOTE DR  HARRY OF AFRICA ALSO HAVE HERBAL REMEDIES TO TO SICKNESSES OR DISEASES BELOW LOTTERY SPELL PENIS ENLARGEMENT, ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART,LOW SPERM COUNT,WEAK ERECTION,BREAST ENLARGEMENT,  PROSTATE CANCER,HIV/AIDS SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL, ALS, HPV 123,PILE,ASTHMA,HEART FAILURE,PREMATURE EJACULATION,HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE.  

Battling with any health related issues or infection is not the end of your life, why not contact a herbal practitioner for cure dr Maggi has herbal remedies and permanent solution for all your health related problems.I recommend him to you today only because i have also used his herbal medicine and it worked perfectly on my health problem, you can actually save yourself from giving your hard earned money to Scammers if only you can contact dr Maggi today for genuine and Permanent cure herbal products . Pls help share this post to save yourself and your love ones.Dr Maggi is specialize in these areas,Permanent herbal supplements for anxiety and depression,HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, Epilepsy, Blood, Cancer, HPV, ALS, herpes etc. Email: drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com also call or whatsApp him on +19179796387

Hello everyone. Dr. Maggi Herbs is a good remedy for herpes Virus , I was a carrier of herpes virus and I saw a testimony on how Dr. Maggi cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 2 weeks before asking me to go for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm HSV 2 Negative after the test, Today i am so happy because i'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr. Maggi. Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Maggi herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible. you can reach him on his email, i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure.Contact Dr Maggi via email: drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com call or whatsApp him on+1(917)979-6387.

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