Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I will be cured from HERPES virus again. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HERPES) for the past 3 years now, I had spent a lot of money going from one places to another, from churches to churches, hospitals have been my home every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR agaba helped someone in curing his HERPES disease, quickly I copied his email which is Dragabasolutionhome@gmail.com just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, behold I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, he is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just email him on : Dragabasolutionhome@gmail.com or WhatApp: +2349074536486 

Herpes is the most widespread sexually transmitted disease that affects human beings. This disease is extremely contagious in nature and can effectively spread from person to person via simple and casual physical contact. but there is a permanent cure.  .I'm so exited to share my testimonies about the Good Work of Dr. Edidia who get me cured from herpes simplex virus (HSV1&2) with his herbs, I never thought that I will live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from herpes, I had spent a lot of money going from one Hospital to another looking for way to get rid of this disease, the hospital have been my home everyday residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching  through the internet, I saw a testimony on how Dr.Edidia helped someone in curing his herpes disease using his healing  Herbs, quickly I copied his email just to give him a test I spoke to him, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he  did, after i receive his herbs and i take it as instructed i was cure permanently from herpes my herpes disease was gone. so I decided to share my testimony, that nothing is impossible with God, God use a man to healed me. No matter what you are passing through, no matter how deadly the sickness is and no matter what the situation is God that did mine is still going to do yours, people suffering from herpes, brain tumor, kidney disease, pcos, AIDS, ALS,copd, asthma, athritis,herpes, Cancer,Hpv, any kind of disease, you can rich him now via ? Gmail address: dredidiaherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp +2349074505296.   his website  https://dredidiaherbalhome.wixsite.com/dredidiaherbalhome      https://dr-edidia-herbal-home.business.site/ https://dredidiaherbalhome.simdif.com/  blogs pages https://naturaltreatmentherpes.blogspot.com/ https://besherpestreatment.blogspot.com/ https://herbalproductforherpes.blogspot.com/ I,m rosesharon and you can get intouch with me via rosesharon915@gmail.com  also view website to know him.

Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I will be cured from HERPES virus again. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HERPES) for the past 3 years now, I had spent a lot of money going from one places to another, from churches to churches, hospitals have been my home every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR agaba helped someone in curing his HERPES disease, quickly I copied his email which is Dragabasolutionhome@gmail.com just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, behold I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, he is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just email him on : Dragabasolutionhome@gmail.com or WhatApp: +2349074536486  

Hello it's Four years ago I found out I was diagnosed with Herpes . I was heartbroken, However a couple months ago I was recommended to a Dr. who helped me to get rid of the virus with natural herbal treatment. Now I fully believed in natural treatment thanks to Dr Oliha. His contact information: oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com or website is https://olihamiraclemedicine.webs.com/ .

How can i ever stop saying thanks to Dr.Aze for his herbal product he render to me and today my sexual life is healthy and balance am living up to my wife expectation. For the past 11 years i have been struggling with with my penis issue, weak erection and premature ejaculation. I have spent money on it but no cure until i took this product from Dr.Aze just within few weeks i got 10 inches penis size, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 10 inches or more you can contact Dr.Aze for his products on his email: (dr.azesolutionhome@gmail.com). you can/whats-app number +2349056991272. All thanks to Dr.Aze once again.

Having Herpes is a Terrible Experience and my Experience will help some hsv patients beware of Herbs from online doc.I was positive to the deadly virus called HERPES and i lost hope because i was out casted and rejected even by my closet friends.i searched on-line to know and enquirer about cure for HERPES and i read someone testimony on how he was cured from HSV-2 so i decided to contactthe same herbalist Call Dr uche because i know that nature has the power to heal everything.i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worrythat he will help me with the natural herbs from God!after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via UPS SPEED POST and it got to me after 3 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i wascured! its really like a dream but i am so happy!that the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more can be saved just like me!and if you need his help, you can email him for help with the following diseases HIV/AIDS, COPD, CANCER, HPV WARTS on:: drucheherbalmedicine@gmail.com whatsapp +2348050777527

Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I had been rejected by my husband after five(5) years of marriage just because another woman had cast a spell on him and he left me with 2 kids to suffer. One day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how he help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a chance he told me that my husband is under spell, he said that he will help me and after 7 days that i will have my husband back. i believed he and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster has the power to bring lovers back now my husband is back with after 7 days . he also gave me a financial magic ring to boost my business and removed bad luck. i am now happy with my husband. Thanks you Dr. love please contact him at (lovespelldoctor0@gmail.com)

I am here again to say a big thank to Professor Oseamuyi who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how Professor Oseamuyi has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..professoroseamuyi@yahoo.com/whatsapp number +2348078665168

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What is there in the Penis Enlargement Remedy method that other stuff does not have? Well, for one thing, Penis Enlargement Remedy is safe as things included in the supplement are totally from the nature. The use of stem cell is a genius invention since penis cannot be enlarged externally. Since the penis stops growing once it reaches its maximum point, the only thing to do is to go deep inside it. Growing penis on a cellular level is a practice that I thank god I found out about Dr Samson from Natural penis center who helped me ship some herbs with DHL to help me out from this shame email naturalpeniscentre@hotmail.com Or visit (naturalpeniscentre.webs.com)

I never thought i would be HIV negative again after been diagnosed in 2017, i have tried everything possible in life from one doctor to another, one hospital to another, series of tests, different kinds of medication, i had already lost hope until i meet Great Dr. OSAGIE online testimonies, a specialist in herbal medication from Africa, i contacted him (drosagiesolutiontemple@gmail.com OR DROSAGIESOULTIONTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM) and he prepared HIV herbal medication for me which i took for 7days and now i am completely cured. i want to use this medium to express my gratitude to him for saving my life and curing me from HIV, for taking away all my pains and sorrows, I''m indeed grateful and i am so happy I''m now HIV negative. i will continue to tell the good news of your great works to everyone, if you have HIV or other disease contact him, Email: his email: (drosagiesolutiontemple@gmail.com OR DROSAGIESOULTIONTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM ) or Whatsapp number: +2347030465649 DOCTOR OSAGIE CAN AS WELL HELP THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS 1. HIV/AIDS SPELL 2. HERPES CURE OF KIND 3. CANCER SPELL 4 IF YOU WANT YOUR EX LOVER BACK SPELL 5 IF YOU NEED A BABY SPELL him to solve 6 LOW SPERM COUNT SPELL get all your problem solve. No problem is too big for him to solve.

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