Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have be to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca i contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally free from Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322.. or vist his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome. He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine: 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

I already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have be to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca i contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally free from Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322.. or vist his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome. He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine: 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

I already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have be to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca i contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally free from Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322.. or vist his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome. He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine: 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

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Hello everyone i am FINN WALLACE  from SCOTLAND  but live in the united states of america   i want to tell the whole world of great  Dr Harry herbal mixture i was unhappy ever since my girlfriend back then in college mocked me of having a small penis and weak in bed ,ever since then i have been trying to improve my sex life but all effort failed ..but it got worse when i got married ,my wife is so angry with me and Threatened to leave me if i do not find a way and i love my wife so much so one faithful day i was reading some comments on a blog then i saw a comment of one Mr Tom Sullivan new Orleans testifying of how Dr Harry helped him enlarge his penis and Fertilise his sperm count so i quickly contacted him by his website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple     and he got back to me and i did as he said ..to my greatest surprise i got 10 inches within two weeks of using his herbal medicine and now its just 3 weeks i am having 10.5 inches i am so happy now..my wife told me am so good in bed that i almost killed her last night all thanks to him note he also cure sicknesses and diseases like  PENIS ENLARGEMENT ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART LOW SPERM COUNT WEAK ERECTION BREAST ENLARGEMENT PROSTRATE CANCER HIV/AIDS PREMATURE EJACULATION  so if you need his help contact him on his email drharrysolution@gmail.com   website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    or whatsapp him on +2349036417079  thanks          

I want to use this means to let the world know that all hope is not lost Getting pregnant after having tubes clamped and burned, I know IVF and Reversal could help but the cost is way too high, i couldn't afford it either and i so desire to add another baby to my family been trying for 5 years, not until i came across DR oriane, who cast a pregnancy/Fertility spell for me and i use his herbal remedy/medication and i got pregnant. l hope that women out there who are going through the same fears and worries l went through in GETTING PREGNANT , will find your contact as i drop it here on this site, and solution will come to them as they contact you. Thank you and God bless you to reach him email via: droriane6@gmail.com orvia whatsApp at +2349032652461

I Want To Appreciate Dr. momoh for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With Herpes Virus Last 2018, And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr. momoh Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr. momoh I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I Know That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr momoh To Help You Too, And Help Me To Thank Dr. momoh For Curing Me, I’m Cured By Dr. momoh Herbal Medicine, His Contact Email:(dr.momoh9@gmail.com) Or Cell Whatsapp Number  +234 708 372 4098   thank you so much DR.momoh. He can also cure other diseases/infections  

Hello everyone i am FINN WALLACE  from SCOTLAND  but live in the united states of america   i want to tell the whole world of great  Dr Harry herbal mixture i was unhappy ever since my girlfriend back then in college mocked me of having a small penis and weak in bed ,ever since then i have been trying to improve my sex life but all effort failed ..but it got worse when i got married ,my wife is so angry with me and Threatened to leave me if i do not find a way and i love my wife so much so one faithful day i was reading some comments on a blog then i saw a comment of one Mr Tom Sullivan new Orleans testifying of how Dr Harry helped him enlarge his penis and Fertilise his sperm count so i quickly contacted him by his website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple     and he got back to me and i did as he said ..to my greatest surprise i got 10 inches within two weeks of using his herbal medicine and now its just 3 weeks i am having 10.5 inches i am so happy now..my wife told me am so good in bed that i almost killed her last night all thanks to him note he also cure sicknesses and diseases like  PENIS ENLARGEMENT ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART LOW SPERM COUNT WEAK ERECTION BREAST ENLARGEMENT PROSTRATE CANCER HIV/AIDS PREMATURE EJACULATION  so if you need his help contact him on his email drharrysolution@gmail.com   website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    or whatsapp him on +2349036417079  thanks            

SEEING IS BELIEVING'' The most powerful international Spiritual healer and spell caster, LICENSED from West Africa That helped me get cured my Herpes, you can also witness the real spiritual powers yourself if you need help in getting your virus cured totally through his email adress: droseherbalcenter@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on +2349039710321 Dr Ose is a gifted powerful herbalist practitioner, fortune teller, marriage consultant and a psychic using his natural power to help people. Dr Ose has been registered with international traditional healers since 1980 with more than 42 years of experience. he works on different spell cast services, he is an international powerful spiritual healer who can help every one all over the world regardless of location, color or race. 'Results are %100 Guaranteed and will vary from person to person' No matter what problems other healers failed to achieve, the manner in which he helped me can't make me stop talking about him, my Herpes almost take my life but through the powerful help of Dr Ose (a man that understand the pains everyone feels) i was able to get cured again and live a normal life, if you need help contact him now through his email droseherbalcenter@gmail.com or call or whatsapp him on +2349039710321 Melissa Amanda From Usa

I want to first say I am thankful to God almighty for making me see this day and secondly to Dr.Ogbeifun who restored my health back. I have been a Herpes virus patient for some time now, I have been running here and there looking for help/cure but none could help. I ran into a testimony by someone who testified how she was cured of a terrible disease by Dr.Ogbeifun So I decided to contact the herbal doctor. I explained to him, and he said he can cure me. We started the process and he prepared herbs and sent them to me in my country and gave me directions on how I am to use it. I followed his directions and now To God be the glory he could cure me with his herbal mixture. I say once again thanks to Dr.Ogbeifun for curing me of my Herpes with his herbs. And in case you want to be cured of your disease too you can contact email: dr.ogbeifunherbalhome7@gmail.com call or Whatsapp Number +2348115204568 AND Dr.ogbeifun SAY HE HAVE CURE FOR SOME ILLNESS LIKE THIS..cancer, diabetes,ringing ear,herpes, genital warts,HPV, Syphilis,HIV, get your problem solved.

i want to  inform the public how i was cured of herpes  Virus by a Doctor called Dr ishiaku. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on Herpes and i saw comment of people talking about how Doctor ishiaku cured them. I Was scared because i never believed in the Internet but i was convince to give him a try because i was having no hope of been cured of herpes so i decided to contact him on his email, i searched his email on net and i saw a lot of people testifying about his goodness. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem, my HERPES result came out negative. You can contact him on his Email: ishiakuherbalcure@gmail.com or whatsapp him via +2348180828544  and get all your problem solved. 1)Sickness of any kind 2)Help to CURE Hepatitis B, herpes, HIV/AIDS CANCER and BIPOLAR 3)Divorce, Breakup problem and To Re-unit 4)Pregnancy problem 5)Financial problem and Job promotion 6)To get a good and rich life partner 7)To Lose your wrath 8)to enlargement of manhood

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