Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I'm here to testify about what DR. OYAGU did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 2 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Shayla Bosschart on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OYAGU on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. OYAGU prepared and sent me Healing Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. OYAGU assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. OYAGU for help via email} oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com whatsaap him through his mobile} +2348101755322. , Thanks once again DR. OYAGU for making me a happy woman again.

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HOW I GET RID OF GENITAL HERPES WITHIN 7 DAYS,NO MORE HEARTBREAK. THIS IS REAL,PLEASE DON'T IGNORE. I caught genital herpes from my ex boyfriend who never never told me he had the virus. I had it for 2 years with so many outbreaks, and it affected my life. I told my husband who I trusted about it and he was avoiding me, it affected my new relationship with my husband. People think herpes is really a minor skin irritation and herpes has long term effects on health. The stigma attached to this virus by ignorant people is ridiculous. Most people have herpes in one form or another. I would like to tell everyone who is reading this my testimony on how I got rid of my genital herpes. I was reading a comment on the internet, and I saw a testimony posted by a young lady from the USA that she got rid of her herpes with the help of doctor MUSTAFA. So i was so happy when i saw that post, that his herbal medication Cured the virus totally. I quickly copied the herbal doctor's email address and I emailed him within 30 minutes and he responded to my mail. I explained things to him and he told me not to worry that i should fill his herbal form which i did. He only requested for little money that he will use to buy the items for the preparation of the herbal medicine, which I sent to him because the pain was too much for me to bear. The next day he told me that he had prepared the herbal medicine, that I should send him my address that he wanted to send it to me via DHL or FED-EX. That was how I got the herbal medication and I used it as I was told. After a week I found out that my herpes was no more. When some of my friends who have herpes saw me they were surprised and I also introduced them to the man and they are also cured from the same herpes. If you have herpes,kindly contact doctor MUSTAFA via this email; herbalremedies21@gmail.com or call and WhatsApp him on +2347010821863 I'm Chino Ong from Chinese. He also has a herbal cure for Following DISEASES, this is not a scam this is real. 1. HIV 2.DIABETES MELLITUS 3. IMPOTENCE 4. PILE 5. LOW SPERM COUNT 6. MENOPAUSE DISEASE 7. CANCER 8.BED WETTING 9. CANCER 10.BARENESS/INFERTILITY, 11.ALS 12.VIRAL HEPATITIS..  

HOW DR AZIBA HELPED ME ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 11INCHES LONG AND 8.0 GROWTH WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ] I got married 2 years ago and it just seemed that there was no excitement in my sex life. My dysfunction to perform to the best of my abilities in bed made it harder for my wife and me to have a good time during sex. And i was having the feelings that she may decide to get a divorce one day. I knew something had to be done in order to improve my sex life and to save my marriage because my marriage was already falling apart, so when i was on my Facebook page i came across a story of how Dr Aziba helped him enlarged his penis to 8ins better.so i Immediately copied the Email address of the Dr and explained to him my problem, he gave me some simply instruction which i must follow and i did easily and my friends Today, i am the happiest man on Earth, All Thanks to Dr Aziba for saving my marriage and making me a real man today. I asked him about some popular diseases like HERPES,HIV AIDS,HEPATITES,DIABETIS, CANCERS, WART, HPV etc.. which are affecting most people he said there is no disease without a cure, he has it all...You can as well reach the Dr below for help on your problem, for he has the solution to all... Email:[ PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL COM ] WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]

I'm here to testify about what DR. OYAGU did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 2 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Shayla Bosschart on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OYAGU on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. OYAGU prepared and sent me Healing Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. OYAGU assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. OYAGU for help via email} oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com whatsaap him through his mobile} +2348101755322. , Thanks once again DR. OYAGU for making me a happy woman again.

I'm here to testify about what DR. OYAGU did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 2 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Shayla Bosschart on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OYAGU on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. OYAGU prepared and sent me Healing Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. OYAGU assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. OYAGU for help via email} oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com whatsaap him through his mobile} +2348101755322. , Thanks once again DR. OYAGU for making me a happy woman again.

A GREAT THANKS TO Dr.Wealthy FOR CURING ME FROM GENITAL HERPES I AM SO HAPPY TO GIVE THIS TESTIMONY ARE YOU SUFFERING FROM THIS SICKNESS HERE IS DR WHO CAN HELP I can’t believe my genital herpes is really cured, oh is by this time last year I start feeling bad about my life, I feel pain everyday of my life am very happy now that am really cured I couldn’t have do this on my own I wish is not God that help me with my helper I was searching the internet about this sickness last 3month when I found about great doctor wealthy, the man that keep his words I write the man email about my problem immediately I get a reply from him asking me to fill a form which I immediately did and send back to him after some mins he reply me that he have work on my cure that I need to provide some materials, which can enable him to work on my cure which I did on the next day of it, after some hours he inform me that he have getting the things needed for the cure and he is about to go on with the curing spell he called me again after 50mins that he is done with the cure that I should check my body and also go for test I cant believe I was negative a big thanks to him am very happy now with my family you can also get your self cured too from this sickness by contacting him through his email: wealthylovespell@gmail.com or whatapp +2348105150446 He also have a herbal cure for 7 other DISEASES; 1.HIV 2.SHINGLES 3.VIRAL HEPATITIS 4.INFLUENZA 5.IMPOTENCE, 6.BARENESS/INFERTILITY, 7.ANTHRAX 8 HPV Contact him today and you will have a testimony…Good luck!

I am excited to share this testimony, I was 3 years ago diagnosed with Herpes virus . My medical condition was heartbroken because it was causing me so many our brakes, I was subjected to different medications by my medical doctor just to control the outbreaks. Despite my visit to several doctors my health wasn't getting better, all they could say is for me to stay on the treatment. At the verge of giving up, I went to the internet to search for a treatment on my own at least. But I found a cure instead. On the internet, I read a testimony of a lady who had herpes. She shared an e-mail address of the Doctor. Luckily .everything seemed to be okay after I took the Herbal Medicine. I wish I could say that’s the end of it because I haven't had any symptoms since then.  Do not expose yourself to more danger, use a herbal remedy that is safe and effective. If interested contact him via email address dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or call +2348107155060  

The greatest Joy in my life today is that i have been cured of Herpes by a Doctor called Dr. Ishiaku, I was infected with HERPES Disease in 2019, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution,so that my body can be okay. Until one faithful day as i was browsing on the internet I saw a testimony on how Dr. ishiaku has helped people in curing Herpes and other diseases, quickly copied his WhatsApp number so i contacted him for solution for my Herpes disease, So Dr. Ishiaku told me that his going to prepare his herbal medicine for my health which he sent to me, luckily after 2week my Herpes was cured. Dr Ishiaku is well recognize as one of the best herbalist doctor in Africa, you don't have to be sad anymore or cry anymore on this disease when the cure is available. The medicine has NO SIDE EFFECT,there's no special diet when taking the medicine. He also cure ALS, HIV AIDS, CANCER, HPV, DIABETES and lots more. For enquiries: E-mail: ishiakuherbalcure@gmail.com WhatsApp: +2348180828544 Website: https://www.ishiakuherbalcure.Wordpress.com

I thought my life had nothing to offer anymore because life became meaningless to me because I had HERPES virus, the symptoms became very severe and bold and made my family run from and abandoned me so they won't get infected. I gave up everything, my hope, dreams,vision and job because the doctor told me there's no cure. I consumed so many drugs but they never cured me but hid the symptoms inside me making it worse. I was doing some research online someday when I came across testimonies of some people of how Dr ebacol cured them from HERPES virus, I never believed at first and thought it was a joke but later decided to contact him on the details provided and when I messaged him we talked and he sent me his herbal medicine and told me to go for a test after two weeks. Within 9 days of medication the symptoms disappeared and when I went for a test Lo and behold I was NEGATIVE by the Doctor Who tested me earlier. Thank you Dr ebacol because I forever owe you my life and I'll keep on telling the world about you. If you are going through same situation worry no more and contact Dr ebacol on email   drebacolherbalhome1@gmail.com   or WhatsApp him via  +2348159042641      

Can't still believe that i got cured from Genital Herpes through herbal treatment from Dr maggi who I met through the internet, I actually couldn't believe it at first because it sounded impossible to me knowing how far I have gone just to get rid of it. Dr maggi send me his medicine which I took as instructed and here I am living a happy life once again, a big thanks to Dr maggi, I am sure there are many herbal doctors out there but Dr maggi did it for me, contact him drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com , also call or whatsApp him on +1(917) 979-6387.

Hello everyone, my name is Alfreed siang  i am here to say a big thank you to my doctor DR OLU who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how DR OLU has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..  drolusolutionhome@gmail.com   or his whataspp is +2348140654426

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They are formidable group hackers comprise of Smart experienced and certified professional hackers, crackers and developers. CONTACT AT= STANDARDWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM   WHATSAPP =  +18283565461 they are the best in all kinds of hacking job. they own powerful spare keys/software which enables them to break-in and hack anything hackable without any trace of disappointment and with full assurance and 100% success, vivid result within a few hours. their numerous services include but not limited to the following: *University / College Upgrades * Offshore ATM Provide * Database Hacking * Mortgage Loan * Fancy car loan * Investment loan * Gift card generator for bulk sale * Delete criminal records * Bitcoin hack and transfer * Email and Paypal Hacking * Work as Cybersecurity adviser * Hijack corporate email * Break into a cell phone * MasterCard hacking * Google Hacking * Clearing credit *iPhone Hacking Tricks * Credit ATM card * Hack Facebook Password Online * Control devices remotely from your computer your network provider * Hacking Software with an untraceable IP address, etc. *Bank account transfer etc - >>>>>Contact them at=  STANDARDWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM   WHATSAPP =  +18283565461 THEY ARE 100% RELIABLE, REFERABLE AND RETAINABLE,,,,.

I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past one years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr patrick and she also gave the email address: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. patrick telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the doctor assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email:: dr.patrickherbalhome@mail.com or whatsApp his number on +2348055367947      

HERBAL DR EMU WHO PREPARE HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE ALL KINDS OF DISEASES INCLUDING HERPES DISEASE.    I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 3 years now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to be in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal Dr Emu who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Emu via his email (emutemple@gmail.com)  write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Emu instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Emu to get rid of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2347012841542.

This year 2020 has been so blissful to me for God has given me a reason to live happily again after been heart broken for 9 months when my husband neglected me and went back to he's mistress. I suffered and went through all types of emotional tortures for i couldn't get any help to get my man back not until i was refereed to Dr. Iyaya by my co-worker who gave me her full assurance about him that he can be of help to me. I got in touch with Dr. Iyaya and i hearken to his words and followed the instructions given to me by him. Could you believe that my husband got back home within 48hours as said by him and today, my marriage is restored & i'm so thankful, appreciative & grateful to God for using Dr. Iyaya to get my man back after 9 months of broken marriage. Is there anyone out there who needs to get back to he's or her lover back or needs any help of any kind? Then, i suggest that you get in touch with Dr. Iyaya now through hiS Email: doctoriyaya@gmail.com Call WhatsApp +2347032756397 for more information, visit his website you may found your solution there www.https://dr-iyaya-herbal-remedy.webnode.com God bless you sir.

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