Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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hello I?m from USA , I have been suffering from HERPES virus for the past 3 years and i had constant pain especially in my knees, During the first year I had faith in God that i will be healed someday, but this disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came in search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of so many people who has been healed from Hepatitis B, HIV/AID, Diabetes,HSV, ALS HPV and Cancer by this Man called Dr, Akioya and he also gave the email address of this man and advice we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Akioya telling him about my HERPES Virus he told me not to worry that i will be cured from this deadly disease i never believed it, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man, few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the Doctor assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my medical doctor to confirmed if i have be finally cured behold it was true,and now i?m cure totally with Dr.Akioya, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr,Akioya on this email; drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or add him up on what-app +2348105257464 

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I was cured of herpes simplex virus by a great herbal doctor called Dr Oyagu with the use of different combination of Africa herbs contact him via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348101755322

I was cured of herpes simplex virus by a great herbal doctor called Dr Oyagu with the use of different combination of Africa herbs contact him via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348101755322

I already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because I have try many treatment none of them work out for me I have be to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca I contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which I took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because I have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so I decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks I was totally free from Herpes. I want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322.. or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome. He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine: 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

I already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because I have try many treatment none of them work out for me I have be to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca I contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which I took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because I have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so I decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks I was totally free from Herpes. I want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322.. or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome. He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine: 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

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Hello everyone, am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr olu a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I adverse you to contact Dr on his email (drolusolutionhome@gmail.com) ) you or contact on whatsapp number +2348140654426 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i Dr olu is also specialized on breast enlargement and boobs enlargement i advise you to contact him for help   How can i ever stop saying thank you to Dr  olu  

I was so deeply in love with a man that even after he began cheating on me I still wanted him back. but things didn't work out between us as he chose to move on with the same person he was cheating on me with, and I got really hurt & went through those moments in which he left me. six weeks later i read a post in a relationship forum about a spell caster who helps people get back their lost love through Love spell and i just decide to contact the spell caster through email: dr.ogedegbe6@gmail.com and explained my problem to him After 48 hours Dr. Ogedegbe returned my man to me not only that, we about getting married soon. all thanks to Dr Ogedegbe I highly recommend Dr. Ogedegbe to anyone in need of help to get your ex back. You can also call him or add him on whatsapp via: +2348109374702... https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Ogedegbe-love-spell-temple-107509541165786/

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Am really happy that i have been cured from HSV1&2 DISEASE with the herbal medicine of Dr otaigbe have been suffering from this disease for a long time now without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave me his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask me to go for a check up after 3 months which i did, to my greatest surprise my result came out as negative, i am really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you have any disease and see if he will not actually help you. I know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases. you can get to him through email:DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM or WhatsApp him +2349066103332 .

Am really happy that i have been cured from HSV1&2 DISEASE with the herbal medicine of Dr otaigbe have been suffering from this disease for a long time now without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave me his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask me to go for a check up after 3 months which i did, to my greatest surprise my result came out as negative, i am really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you have any disease and see if he will not actually help you. I know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases. you can get to him through email:DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM or WhatsApp him +2349066103332 .

Am really happy that i have been cured from HSV1&2 DISEASE with the herbal medicine of Dr otaigbe have been suffering from this disease for a long time now without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave me his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask me to go for a check up after 3 months which i did, to my greatest surprise my result came out as negative, i am really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you have any disease and see if he will not actually help you. I know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases. you can get to him through email:DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM or WhatsApp him +2349066103332 .

Am really happy that i have been cured from HSV1&2 DISEASE with the herbal medicine of Dr otaigbe have been suffering from this disease for a long time now without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave me his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask me to go for a check up after 3 months which i did, to my greatest surprise my result came out as negative, i am really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you have any disease and see if he will not actually help you. I know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases. you can get to him through email:DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM or WhatsApp him +2349066103332 .

Am really happy that i have been cured from HSV1&2 DISEASE with the herbal medicine of Dr otaigbe have been suffering from this disease for a long time now without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave me his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask me to go for a check up after 3 months which i did, to my greatest surprise my result came out as negative, i am really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you have any disease and see if he will not actually help you. I know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases. you can get to him through email:DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM or WhatsApp him +2349066103332 .

HELLO everyone! Still don’t know the right words to express my Gratitude to the Great DR.Imoudu After been diagnosed with the #herpes for the passed 1 years, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found many testimonies of Great DR.Imoudu in an online research Like anybody would be, i advice anyone that is living with herpes can also contact him today, because he has the cure to any virus problem contact him on WhatsApp +2348109609753.. Or his Email: DR.IMOUDUHEALERTEMPLE@GMAIL. COM 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LOOSE WEIGHT AND BODY/EX-BACK/HEPATITIS/ THANK YOU DR.Imoudu FOR YOU GOOD WORK IN MY LIFE..

Am really happy that i have been cured from HSV1&2 DISEASE with the herbal medicine of Dr otaigbe have been suffering from this disease for a long time now without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave me his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask me to go for a check up after 3 months which i did, to my greatest surprise my result came out as negative, i am really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you have any disease and see if he will not actually help you. I know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases. you can get to him through email:DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM or WhatsApp him +2349066103332 .

I want to especially thank Dr otaigbe for helping me get cured of the Genital Herpes Virus. I was diagnosed last 2 summers and my doctor said no cure for the virus. I was in big trouble until I saw this YouTube online testifying about Dr otaigbe, How he cured A lady with herpes disease using his herbal healing cure. I contacted his base on the good testimonies I was seeing about him on the internet, how he cured so many people from different diseases and Viruses with his roots, herbs, and healing oil. I placed an order and received medicines after 4 working days and commerce treatment as instructed, now I'm happily sharing my own testimony to the world that I'm cured. If you need help to cure HSV 1-2 or any other disease or virus, contact him today on his email; DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM Or Call/Whatsapp his number on +2349066103332. I hope that everyone reading this post should refer to others who need help to cure DROTAIGBESPELLHOME@GMAIL. COM for additional information. When people know better, they do better ! You will be glad you did. Covid-19 Pandemic is real, stay home stay safe

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