Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I was able to get rid of my herpes virus last year, i was diagnosed of herpes virus since late 2015 and i was on my doctor prescription ever since, I wasn’t satisfied i needed to get the virus out of my system,i was going through a blog to find new informations about the Herpes Simplex Virus i came across a review of a lady who was cured by drosasherbalhome@gmailcom I contacted the herbal foundation and they guided me on how to purchase the herbal formula. the herbal products las me for 3 weeks which helps me to get rid of the virus totally, for easy communication you can reach Dr Freeman Osas on his WhatSapp via +2349035428122   

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All thanks to Dr.Isai for bringing back my life. I was cured from genital herpes 2 with the herbal medicine Dr.Isai sent to me. I got to know about Dr.Isai through a friend that was also cured from Diabetes after taking Dr.Isai herbal medicine. Dr.Isai herbal medicine works very fast without any side effects. I recommend Dr.Isai to everyone suffering from genital herpes or any type of disease, His medicine will cure you 100% completely. You can contact him through His email address drisaiherbalcenter@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +2349034352176.  

I have heard of him before, but after watching his documentary “healing spell” I was turned on to the full story about Dr uwa. He is a man who has the Cure for HIV AIDS,Cancer, Sickle Cell, Herpes,warts,HPV,ALS Diabetes and every kind of illness, through a whole foods vegetarian diet and natural herbs, what he calls Electric Foods. He went to herbal school college, and has thousands of testimonials of healing people with Herpes, HIV AIDS, and HPV several other illnesses. Lisa “Left Eye” Lopes of TLC was cured of HIV by him and she was so moved by his knowledge that she went on to spread the word about him in every way she could. She also opened a Cultural/Healing Center for Children in USA before she passed away tragically. This all inspired me that i had to contact Dr uwa, because i was having HIV for so many years which could not be cure but was only managed, when i contacted Dr. uwa, he sent me some herbs which i took, and now i can tell you, i have be totally cured of HIV , My Name is Jasmine, I am from the South Carolina, Please if you have any form of illness especially STD,Infertility,HIV etc. you can contact him through his Email Address Name: Jasmine Jennifer Email: druwaherbalcenter@gmail.com PHONE/WHATS APP : +27679858498

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HPV It's the most common sexually transmitted infection/diseases, i was so devastated when i first get tested positive and I was able to get rid of it wit the use of herbal medicine and today am tested negative, herpes free and ever since then i now play safe with whomever i came in contact with. i want you all out there to know that having herpes is not the end of your life cause it can be cured by the use of herbal medicine and i got this medicine from Dr Ofua Ofure you can check him out on https://dr-ofua-ofure-herbal-healing-home.business.site whatsapp/call +2347059497969

HPV It's the most common sexually transmitted infection/diseases, i was so devastated when i first get tested positive and I was able to get rid of it wit the use of herbal medicine and today am tested negative, herpes free and ever since then i now play safe with whomever i came in contact with. i want you all out there to know that having herpes is not the end of your life cause it can be cured by the use of herbal medicine and i got this medicine from Dr Ofua Ofure you can check him out on https://dr-ofua-ofure-herbal-healing-home.business.site whatsapp/call +2347059497969

Can't still believe that i got cured from Genital Herpes through herbal treatment from Dr maggi who I met through the internet, I actually couldn't believe it at first because it sounded impossible to me knowing how far I have gone just to get rid of it. Dr maggi send me his medicine which I took as instructed and here I am living a happy life once again, a big thanks to Dr maggi, I am sure there are many herbal doctors out there but Dr maggi did it for me, contact him drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com , also call or whatsApp him on +1(917) 979-6387.

This is my testimony about the good work of Dr voodoo who help me.... I'm Katherine from London. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to by this world top spell caster that brought back my husband which left me out for past 3 years, i eventually met this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 2 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told have come to pass and thank you sir. Please i want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to problem, i advice you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tell is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com you can also add Dr.voodoo on whatsApp +2348140120719 contact him immediately.

Hello everyone i am Jaime Pena   from USA  but live in the united states of America   i want to tell the whole world of great  Dr Harry herbal mixture i was unhappy ever since my girlfriend back then in college mocked me of having a small penis and weak in bed ,ever since then i have been trying to improve my sex life but all effort failed ..but it got worse when i got married ,my wife is so angry with me and Threatened to leave me if i do not find a way and i love my wife so much so one faithful day i was reading some comments on a blog then i saw a comment of one Mr Tom Sullivan new Orleans testifying of how Dr Harry helped him enlarge his penis and Fertilise his sperm count so i quickly contacted him by his website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple     and he got back to me and i did as he said,To my greatest surprise i got 10 inches within two  weeks of using his herbal medicine and now its just 3 weeks i am having 11 inches i am so happy now..my wife told me am so good in bed that i almost killed her last night all thanks to him so if you need his help contact him on his email drharrysolution@gmail.com   website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    or whatsapp him on +2349036417079  thanks              

I want to give a testimony on how I got cured from Herpes Virus. Few months back I was having some symptoms . I went to see a doctor and many blood tests was done on me, later on I was told I had Herpes. My doctor told me that there’s no cure for Herpes I felt bad, I went online searching for a possible cure for Herpes Virus, I saw a post of Dr.patrick a herbal doctor that’s helping people get cured from HIV, HEPATITIS B, CANCER e.t.c. I contacted him and told him how I’m feeling he said his herbal medicine can cure me. He sent me the medicine via UPS delivery service and I received the medicine some days after he sent it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him. Before the completion of the medication the symptoms stopped. I went to the doctor and carried out another blood test, surprisingly I was Negative. I haven’t had any symptoms anymore. Dr. patrick is great and you can contact via (dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail .com) or message him on via whatsApp at +2348055367947                  

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how DR.WEALTHY have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call DR.WEALTHY he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via wealthylovespell@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348105150446 or visit his website https://wealthylovespell.blogspot.com. You will be lucky as I am today if you have the courage to contact him and listen to his instruction.

Hello everyone i am Jaime Pena   from USA  but live in the united states of America   i want to tell the whole world of great  Dr Harry herbal mixture i was unhappy ever since my girlfriend back then in college mocked me of having a small penis and weak in bed ,ever since then i have been trying to improve my sex life but all effort failed ..but it got worse when i got married ,my wife is so angry with me and Threatened to leave me if i do not find a way and i love my wife so much so one faithful day i was reading some comments on a blog then i saw a comment of one Mr Tom Sullivan new Orleans testifying of how Dr Harry helped him enlarge his penis and Fertilise his sperm count so i quickly contacted him by his website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple     and he got back to me and i did as he said,To my greatest surprise i got 10 inches within two  weeks of using his herbal medicine and now its just 3 weeks i am having 11 inches i am so happy now..my wife told me am so good in bed that i almost killed her last night all thanks to him so if you need his help contact him on his email drharrysolution@gmail.com   website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    or whatsapp him on +2349036417079  thanks              

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how DR.WEALTHY have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call DR.WEALTHY he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via wealthylovespell@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348105150446 or visit his website https://wealthylovespell.blogspot.com. You will be lucky as I am today if you have the courage to contact him and listen to his instruction.

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how DR.WEALTHY have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call DR.WEALTHY he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via wealthylovespell@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348105150446 or visit his website https://wealthylovespell.blogspot.com. You will be lucky as I am today if you have the courage to contact him and listen to his instruction.

I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past one years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr patrick and she also gave the email address: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. patrick telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the doctor assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email:: dr.patrickherbalhome@mail.com or whatsApp his number on +2348055367947          

I’m so happy to testify of the good work of Dr. patrick I Suffer from Herpes virus since 2007 and i had frequent symptoms in my private area, after some time it will go away after using acyclovir drugs, then come back after some months. it was disheartening since i have been diagnosed, but after finding Dr. patrick and his reviews i was convinced that he will definitely cure me and so i contacted and he told me how to get his medicine and using it for just 14 days and i will go and check up and first i said how can that be possible but i used his herbal medicine after making purchase and truly i used it and went for the test again, and my result came back negative. so i made it a task to share this good testimony in the internet so that those sick can benefit and get cured. What app or call:+2348055367947 Email:dr. patrickherbalhome@gmail.com    

The greatest joy in my life today is that I have been cured of Herpes by a Doctor called Dr. Williams, I was infected with HERPES Disease in 2017, I went to many hospitals for a cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution so that my body can be okay. Until one faithful day as i was browsing on the internet I saw a testimony on how Dr. Williams has helped people in curing Herpes and other diseases, quickly I copied his WhatsApp number so I contacted him for a solution for my Herpes disease, So Dr. Williams told me that his going to prepare his herbal medicine for my health which he sent to me, luckily after 2week my Herpes was cured. Dr. Williams is well recognized as one of the best herbalist doctors in Africa, you don't have to be sad anymore or share your tears anymore on this disease when the cure is available. The medicine has NO SIDE EFFECT, there's no special diet when taking the medicine. He also cures ALS, HIV AIDS, CANCER, HPV, DIABETES, and lots more. For enquiries:Email:drwilliamscure@gmail.com WhatsApp: +2347040461868 Website: https://drwilliamscure.wixsite.com/he...

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