Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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Good day everybody, This is my testimony on how I won 53,193,914 million pounds on Mega millions lottery. I want to use this opportunity to thank Dr clement,for casting winning spell for me to win the lottery of 53,193,194 million pounds,lottery ticket.I have been playing lotteries for the past 5 years now and i have never won any. Ever since then i have not been able to win any lotto and i was so upset and i needed help to win this mega million lottery. so i decided to go online and search for help, there i saw so many good testimony about this man called Dr Iyaryi,of how he has cast lucky spell lotto for people to win the lottery. I contacted him also and tell him i want to win the Mega millions lottery, he cast a spell for me which i use to play and won 53.193,914 million pounds in mega millions lottery. I am so grateful to this man, just in-case you also need him to help you win, you can contact him through his Email: allmightbazulartemple@gmail.com, and he will surely help you just the way he has helped me. i will forever be grateful to him and always testify the good work of him to the hole world. contact him via Email: allmightbazulartemple@gmail.com, or you can also contact him through his email and he will surely help you to win any kind of lottery And also Reach him on WhatsApp Number +2347051758952 Thanks Dr. clement cana also cure all others of infection disease with herbal medicine list of my work {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} CANCER {5} HPV {6} ASTHMA {7} HEPATITIS {8}LOVE SPELL {9} MONEY SPELL 10 IMPOTENCE

I came across many testimonies on net testifying of GREAT Dr OCUSODO a voodoo spell caster that will help you cast a LOTTERY spell and give you the rightful numbers to win the lottery. I didn’t believe it at first. But as life got harder, I decided to take a try. Now my try has made me a millionaire after playing all types of lottery for 7 years and hadn’t won up to $1000. After contacting him he cast the spell and gave me the hot figures. Behold, I won (FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS) $70,000. Now I am a living testimony of the good works of GREAT Dr OCUSODO, a gifted man with great powers; it is my secret but I have decided to make the world know too. It might be of help to anyone who is interested. You are free to contact him or email him. ( drocusodospellcaster@gmail.com) or (drocusodospellcaster@yahoo.com) add him on WhatsApp +2347066448668

I have come to find out that herbal medicine its the best solution to all STDs and STIs and other health related threatening issues/diseases, cause i was once tested positive for herpes and i have lived with it for about 5 years tried all form of medication all to know avail, until i get a recommendation from someone online about herbal medicine fro Dr Ofua, indeed i actually do a little/more research about the Herbalist and found out he has the possible cure to my ailment, i gave it a try by contacting him on WhatsApp messenger +2347059497969 or email thegreatherbalhealinghome@gmail.com he had the herbal medicine he sent to me and gave me dietary instructions to follows up while using the herbal medicine, he suggest that i used the medicine for a period of 21 days that after then i should go for a check up at the hospital to know the status of my herpes, which i actually did, after few weeks as recommended by him, I go for check up and behold i was now tested Negative, ever since then i have vowed to let everyone knows that herbal medicine is the solution to any diseases/infections, despite these Big pharma company trying to makes us not to use herbal medicine framing all sort of bad reviews just to diminished herbal medication for their selfish interest and big wallets purpose, my advice to you all is that try herbal medicine today and be glad that you have tried it and i assured you that if you do you will have cause to share a testimony online just am doing now, visit Websites: ( https://dr-ofua-ofure-herbal-healing-home.business.site) to know more about the great herbalist that help me and am sure he too will help you.

I used Dr Noah healing protocol to treat my hpv virus totally, visit https://noahmedicalcentre.webs.com/ , email dr.noahmedicalcenter@gmail.com or Text/Call +1 (310) 982-4670

I used Dr Noah healing protocol to treat my hpv virus totally, visit https://noahmedicalcentre.webs.com/ , email dr.noahmedicalcenter@gmail.com or Text/Call +1 (310) 982-4670

I used Dr Noah healing protocol to treat my hpv virus totally, visit https://noahmedicalcentre.webs.com/ , email dr.noahmedicalcenter@gmail.com or Text/Call +1 (310) 982-4670...

MEU NOME É EMILIO DONALD Eu quero usar este meio para contar ao mundo sobre o Dr. johnson miller que ajudou eu em ter meu amante de volta com seu feitiço poderoso, meu ex e eu onde tendo um mal-entendido que levou ao nosso rompimento, embora eu tenha ido implorar a ela várias vezes para me perdoar e aceitar de volta porque eu sei que eu ofendeu-a, mas cada vez que vou, sempre sinto uma dor mais profunda e agonia porque ela sempre me abandonou e não queria ouvir o que eu tenho a dizer, mas no dia fiel, enquanto navegava, cheguei, levantei um testemunho de uma mulher cujo problema era mais do que o meu e ainda assim o doutor johnson miller a ajudou com seu feitiço, então eu fiquei feliz e também contatei o médico johnson miller pela ajuda via e-mail e então contei a ele minha história, mas a única coisa que ele disse foi que vou enxugar suas lágrimas com meu feitiço, sorte minha tudo quero bem como ele prometeu e agora tenho meu noivo de volta e nós dois estamos vivendo felizes. não há nada com o que o Dr. johnson miller não possa fazer é um feitiço e assim como eu prometo, continuarei testemunhando na internet de como o Dr. johnson miller me ajudou. Seu problema é maior do que o meu ou menos eu lhe dou 100% de garantia de que o Dr. johnson miller vai acabar com isso com seu feitiço poderoso, entre em contato com o Dr. johnson miller para obter ajuda Via e-mail..johnsonmillerspellcaster11 @ gmail.com .ou você também pode contatá-lo no WhatsApp +2347054656351 1. RECUPERANDO SEU AMANTE EX. 2. LOTERIAS DE VENCIMENTO. 3. ROLAMENTO DE CRIANÇA. 4. CURSO DE INTERRUPÇÃO DE GERAÇÃO. 5. OBTENÇÃO DE TRABALHO. 6. PROMOÇÃO DE TRABALHO. 7. FEITO DE DINHEIRO. 8. PROTEÇÃO ESPIRITUAL. 9. CUIDADOS HERBAIS. 10. FEITIÇO DE BELEZA. 11. FEITIÇOS DE VINGANÇA. 12 WICCAN SPELL. 13 FEITO DE AMULETAS PODEROSAS. 14 FEITO DE CURA. 15MIRACLE SPELL. E.T.C

I was able to get rid of my herpes with herbal medicine prepared by Dr. Ajayi, a good herbal doctor.  Trust me my dear I am totally cured. Am so excited to share this good news. You may want to know how I got cured. Kindly email Dr.Ajayi at ajayiherbalhome@gmail.com call whatsapp him at +2348154724883 or visit his website https://ajayiherbalhome.weebly.com for more information        

I Want To Appreciate Dr.godwin for hs great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And Was Look For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.godwin Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.godwin I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have There Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr Goodwin To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr. GODWIN For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. Godwin Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email: drgodwinsolutionhome@gmail.comOr Cell Whatsapp Number +2348054615060 thank you .....https://drgodwinsolutionho.wixsite.com/drgodwinsolutionhome

Thanks to Dr OSAGIE for helping me increase the size of my Penis. I have been married for 10 years and due to my small Penis I was unable to satisfy my wife and that made us childless and my wife planned to leave me I was really disappointed with myself and I was also having weak erection I thought all my hope was gone not until I saw a testimony on how the same Dr OSAGIE helped someone increase his Penis size. I was desperate to do anything to regain my sex life back and I contacted him and he promise to help me so he gave me a herbal mixture which i was using and after three days I began to experience changes. I am writing this testimony not only because he has helped me increase the size of my Penis, I can now satisfy my wife and my wife is three months pregnant. All thanks to Dr OSAGIE if you are having a weak erection problem or small Penis size contact him with his email:drosagiesolutionhome5 @ gmail. com or whats app him +2347035866588.  

Hello everyone, I am so glad to write this article today to tell the world how Dr.patrick cured my (HSV VIRUS),I have been detected with (HSV-1&2) since two years ago, ever since then my life has been incomplete bizarre and agony, I have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors, but it didn't cure my (HSV VIRUS) neither did it reduce the pain, until a certain day i was checking for solution on the internet, then miraculously i came across Dr.patrick the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals (HSV-1 & HSV-2, HPV 1&2 INFECTIONS). Then I contacted him and  explained everything to him, and he prepared a herbal medicine for me that cured my (HSV-1&2) disease totally after taking his herbal medicine as instructed. I'm so happy and glad that I'm back to normal again. So viewers why waiting and being in pain when there's someone like Dr.patrick that cured different diseases. So contact him via email : dr.patrickherbalhom@gmail.com or whatsApp him on +2348055367947  

I'm here to testify about what DR. OYAGU did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 2 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday. This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Shayla Bosschart on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OYAGU on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. OYAGU prepared and sent me Healing Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. OYAGU assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. OYAGU for help via email} oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome whatsapp him through his mobile} +2348101755322. , Thanks once again DR. OYAGU for making me a happy woman again.

Am Here To Give My Testimony About A Doctor Who Helped Me In My Life. I Was Infected With HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS In 2019, I Went To Many Hospitals For Cure But There Was No Solution, So I Was Thinking How Can I Get A Solution Out So That My Body Can Be Okay. One Day I Was In The River Side Thinking Where I Can Go To Get Solution. So A Lady Walked To Me Telling Me Why Am I So Sad And I Open Up All To Her Telling Her My Problem, She Told Me That She Can Help Me Out, She Introduce Me To A Doctor Who Uses Herbal Medication To Cure HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS And Gave Me His Email, So I Mail Him. He Told Me All The Things I Need To Do And Also Give Me Instructions To Take, Which I Followed Properly. Before I Knew What Is Happening After Two Weeks The HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS That Was In My Body Got Vanished . So If You Are Also Heart Broken And Also Need A Help, You Can Also contact Him Through Dr. Oyagu reach him oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Or whatsapp him via +2348101755322

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