Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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HOW I CURED FROM THE HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed with the HERPES virus and I have tried everything possible to cure myself, but all to no avail, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist preparing herbal medicines to cure all kinds of diseases including HERPES virus, at first I doubted it was real, but decided to give it a try, when I contacted this herbalist through his email (driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com) and he prepared me a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me through the service of UPS delivery company, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step-by-step instructions on how to apply it, after applying it the way they directed me, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr. IYOHA, contact the great herbal doctor through his what-sapp Via: +1 857 228 8347 or call him : +1 407 337 9869 .

It was so great and i really want to say thanks to those people out there who were kind enough to share genuine testimonies about how they actually got all their problems solved one time. It was awesome the day I came across a testimony shared by a wonderful lady about getting several help from a spell doctor by name, Dr. Ozigidon the name sounded familiar because I have read and watched videos online about this great spell doctor on how he has helped people with fertility spells, bringing back broken relationships after many years of lost love, restoring divorced homes to normal and many more. At first, I never believed that spell can do all of this easily and permanently but after reading a testimony about a similar problems i was facing at that moment i was convinced and i contacted Dr Ozigidon via his email and even on WhatsApp +2349054750112  email  drozigidonhenz.spell.net@gmail.com I got his reply finally and he promised to grant my heart desire and he told me all that was needed for the spell casting and I gladly provided it. Just within 48hrs my husband called his lawyer to cancel the divorce case and called me to say he was coming back home. I was so happy and thankful to Dr. Ozigidon powerful spell also to those that came online to testify about him. Don't let your problems bring you down because most problems are not ordinary as they seem to be. His email: drozigidonhenz.spell.net@gmail.com  

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I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask .to bring their doctor report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to Dr Aba, that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive or any STD diseases his email is: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2348107155060    

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

I am Marianna. Residing in Germany, I contacted HEPATITIS B Virus from my mother from my childhood and since then i started having symptoms severe pains all over my hip bones and also vomiting sometimes. it was a tough time for me, i was tried seeing many Drs for help, but i keep spending more money in difference hospitals and nothing was changing, but i was on net one afternoon, i was checking my brother blog i saw comment i decided to read a few and i was surprise when i saw a lady talking of Dr Care. from Europe i was glad, i message him on his email, and he told me the process and sent me medicine and when i receive the medicine and used it within 2weeks i was diagnosed negative. i also found out that he has solution to all disease, so get yours Now. Email at [ drcarevoodoospell@gmail.com ] call or whatsApp him on +393510620692 for more HIS HAVE THE CURE TO THIS FOLLOWING DEADLY DISEASE 1 HERPES VIRUS 2 Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers 3 Lower respiratory infections 4 HIV/VIRUS 5 Diarrhea diseases 6 Tuberculosis 7 Diabetes 8 Hypertension heart disease drcarevoodoospell@gmail.com] call or whatsApp him on +393510620692

I want the universe to know that I am happy today because of Dr. Ayo, the spellcaster who brought my husband to me when I thought I had lost him forever. On one fateful day I saw a series of testimonies on the internet about the help he offers to the heartbroken, so I decided to contact him for my husband who left me without a word, after I narrated all my problems he assured me that I will return home with me, up to a point I believe him and I did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise my husband, who had refused to see me, came to the house and cried for forgiveness and now we are living happily together with a lot of love and affection of the. Do you have problems in your relationship? Has your partner broken up with you and you still love him and want him to come back? Are you having trouble with your finances? Dr. Ayo is the answer to all your problem, contact him on his WhatsApp +2347055691377 or email: drayo47373@gmail.com

I want the universe to know that I am happy today because of Dr. Ayo, the spellcaster who brought my husband to me when I thought I had lost him forever. On one fateful day I saw a series of testimonies on the internet about the help he offers to the heartbroken, so I decided to contact him for my husband who left me without a word, after I narrated all my problems he assured me that I will return home with me, up to a point I believe him and I did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise my husband, who had refused to see me, came to the house and cried for forgiveness and now we are living happily together with a lot of love and affection of the. Do you have problems in your relationship? Has your partner broken up with you and you still love him and want him to come back? Are you having trouble with your finances? Dr. Ayo is the answer to all your problem, contact him on his WhatsApp +2347055691377 or email: drayo47373@gmail.com

I'm here to testify about what DR. OYAGU did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 2 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday. This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Shayla Bosschart on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OYAGU on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. OYAGU prepared and sent me Healing Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. OYAGU assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. OYAGU for help via email} oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome whatsapp him through his mobile} +2348101755322. , Thanks once again DR. OYAGU for making me a happy woman again.

I'm here to testify about what DR. OYAGU did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 2 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday. This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Shayla Bosschart on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OYAGU on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. OYAGU prepared and sent me Healing Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. OYAGU assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. OYAGU for help via email} oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome whatsapp him through his mobile} +2348101755322. , Thanks once again DR. OYAGU for making me a happy woman again.

Natural roots and herbs are the best remedy which can easily eradicate herpes forever for more information about herpes cure Please write Dr. Godwin for any health challenge email: drgodwinsolutionhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2348054615060 website https://drgodwinsolutionho.wixsite.com/drgodwinsolutionhome

HOW I CURED FROM THE HERPES VIRUS  I was diagnosed with the HERPES virus and I have tried everything possible to cure myself, but all to no avail, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist preparing herbal medicines to cure all kinds  of diseases including HERPES virus, at first I doubted it was real, but decided to give it a try, when I contacted this herbalist through his email (ishiakuherbalcure@gmail.com) and he prepared me a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me through the service of  DHL delivery company, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step-by-step instructions on how to apply it, after applying it the way they directed me, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks  to Dr. Ishiaku, contact the great herbal doctor through his what-sapp Via  +2348180828544HE  CAN ALSO CURE DISEASES LIKE     {1} HIV / AIDS    {2} DIABETES    {3} EPILEPSY     {4} BLOOD CANCER     {5} HPV    {6} ALS     {7} HEPATITIS B  {8} LOVE SPELL   {9} SICKLE AND ANEMIA {10}INFERTILITY^Beware of fake doctors and anyone who uses this testimonial again is a scam Only Dr. Ishiaku  can help you I love youIG: @dr_ishiaku

HOW I CURED FROM THE HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed with the HERPES virus and I have tried everything possible to cure myself, but all to no avail, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist preparing herbal medicines to cure all kinds of diseases including HERPES virus, at first I doubted it was real, but decided to give it a try, when I contacted this herbalist through his email (driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com) and he prepared me a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me through the service of UPS delivery company, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step-by-step instructions on how to apply it, after applying it the way they directed me, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr. IYOHA, contact the great herbal doctor through his what-sapp Via: +1 857 228 8347 or call him : +1 407 337 9869 .

HOW I CURED FROM THE HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed with the HERPES virus and I have tried everything possible to cure myself, but all to no avail, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist preparing herbal medicines to cure all kinds of diseases including HERPES virus, at first I doubted it was real, but decided to give it a try, when I contacted this herbalist through his email (driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com) and he prepared me a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me through the service of UPS delivery company, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step-by-step instructions on how to apply it, after applying it the way they directed me, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr. IYOHA, contact the great herbal doctor through his what-sapp Via: +1 857 228 8347 or call him : +1 407 337 9869 .

HOW I CURED FROM THE HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed with the HERPES virus and I have tried everything possible to cure myself, but all to no avail, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist preparing herbal medicines to cure all kinds of diseases including HERPES virus, at first I doubted it was real, but decided to give it a try, when I contacted this herbalist through his email (driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com) and he prepared me a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me through the service of UPS delivery company, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step-by-step instructions on how to apply it, after applying it the way they directed me, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr. IYOHA, contact the great herbal doctor through his what-sapp Via: +1 857 228 8347 or call him : +1 407 337 9869 .

HOW I CURED FROM THE HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed with the HERPES virus and I have tried everything possible to cure myself, but all to no avail, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist preparing herbal medicines to cure all kinds of diseases including HERPES virus, at first I doubted it was real, but decided to give it a try, when I contacted this herbalist through his email (driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com) and he prepared me a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me through the service of UPS delivery company, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step-by-step instructions on how to apply it, after applying it the way they directed me, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr. IYOHA, contact the great herbal doctor through his what-sapp Via: +1 857 228 8347 or call him : +1 407 337 9869 .

HOW I CURED FROM THE HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed with the HERPES virus and I have tried everything possible to cure myself, but all to no avail, until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist preparing herbal medicines to cure all kinds of diseases including HERPES virus, at first I doubted it was real, but decided to give it a try, when I contacted this herbalist through his email (driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com) and he prepared me a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me through the service of UPS delivery company, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step-by-step instructions on how to apply it, after applying it the way they directed me, I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr. IYOHA, contact the great herbal doctor through his what-sapp Via: +1 857 228 8347 or call him : +1 407 337 9869 .

I suffered for four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in CA for treatment but no improvement. I met Dr.OMONGE online while I was searching for a herpes cure. I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr.OMONGBE WhatsApp +2348050407265 or Email: dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com  His website https://dromongbenaturalre.wixsite.com/dromongbenaturalreme

Thank you Dr Great for your genuine spells. This is really incredible, and I have never experienced anything like this in my life. Before i came in contact with Dr Great, i have tried every possible means that i could to get my wife back, but i actually came to realize that nothing was working out for me, and that my wife had developed lot of hatred for me.. I thought there was no hope to reunite with my ex wife and kids. But when i read good reviews about Dr Great work , i decided to give it a try and i did everything that he instructed me and i trusted in him and followed his instructions just as he have guaranteed me in 28 hours, and that was exactly when my wife called me.. We are more contented now than ever. Everything looks perfect and so natural! Thank you so much for your authentic and indisputable spells. Thank you Dr Great for your help. If you need help in your marriage of broken relationship, contact Dr Great right now for urgent help Email: infinitylovespell@gmail.com OR infinitylovespell@yahoo.com View his blog  http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com Call/WhatsApp him: +2348118829899

I suffered for four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in CA for treatment but no improvement. I met Dr.OMONGE online while I was searching for a herpes cure. I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr.OMONGBE WhatsApp +2348050407265 or Email: dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com  His website https://dromongbenaturalre.wixsite.com/dromongbenaturalreme

I suffered for four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in CA for treatment but no improvement. I met Dr.OMONGE online while I was searching for a herpes cure. I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr.OMONGBE WhatsApp +2348050407265 or Email: dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com  His website https://dromongbenaturalre.wixsite.com/dromongbenaturalreme

Thank you Dr Great for your genuine spells. This is really incredible, and I have never experienced anything like this in my life. Before i came in contact with Dr Great, i have tried every possible means that i could to get my wife back, but i actually came to realize that nothing was working out for me, and that my wife had developed lot of hatred for me.. I thought there was no hope to reunite with my ex wife and kids. But when i read good reviews about Dr Great work , i decided to give it a try and i did everything that he instructed me and i trusted in him and followed his instructions just as he have guaranteed me in 28 hours, and that was exactly when my wife called me.. We are more contented now than ever. Everything looks perfect and so natural! Thank you so much for your authentic and indisputable spells. Thank you Dr Great for your help. If you need help in your marriage of broken relationship, contact Dr Great right now for urgent help Email: infinitylovespell@gmail.com OR infinitylovespell@yahoo.com View his blog  http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com Call/WhatsApp him: +2348118829899

I suffered for four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in CA for treatment but no improvement. I met Dr.OMONGE online while I was searching for a herpes cure. I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr.OMONGBE WhatsApp +2348050407265 or Email: dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com  His website https://dromongbenaturalre.wixsite.com/dromongbenaturalreme

I suffered for four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in CA for treatment but no improvement. I met Dr.OMONGE online while I was searching for a herpes cure. I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr.OMONGBE WhatsApp +2348050407265 or Email: dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com  His website https://dromongbenaturalre.wixsite.com/dromongbenaturalreme

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