Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome you will be lucky as I am today

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome you will be lucky as I am today

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome you will be lucky as I am today

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome you will be lucky as I am today

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome you will be lucky as I am today

I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2016. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which I come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome you will be lucky as I am today

A big Thanks to you doctor peter Just confirm am completely cure free from hsv1 with the help of his wonderful herbs medicine, may God continue to bless you and your wonderful herbs medicine thanks so much dr Peter anyone looking for any herbs medicine should kindly contact Dr Peter to place your order for his lovely herbs medicine Via email (ayokospellcaster@gmail.com) or Whatsapp/Call him on +2348132537313 https://mobile.facebook.com/Dr-Peter-100639008717191/?ref=opera_speed_dial

I just got cured from a long term Herpes disease that I’ve been diagnosed with for almost 2 years now. It’s like a miracle. Dr. Alfred recently cured me from herpes completely! I’m so excited!! There’s truly a cure for Herpes Virus. I have almost given up trying to find a cure. I don’t want to go deep into details but if you got Herpes Simplex Virus contact the African Herbalist Dr Alfred alfredherbalhome@gmail.com Whatsapp/Tel +2347015226105 He’s the man for most sexually transmitted infections too, such as Chlamydia, HPV, Gonorrhea, Herpatitis, Scabies, Syphilis. Contact him. You'll be happy you did.

I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past one years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr patrick and she also gave the email address: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. patrick telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes, all over me as the doctor assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor, to confirmed, if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email:: dr.patrickherbalhome@mail.com or whatsApp his number on +2348055367947            

Erinomaiset ja ammattitaitoiset tutkintapalvelut. Palkkasin tämän hakkerin hyvin yksityiseen ja vaikeaan asiaan hakata aviopuolisoni puhelimeen, ja hän ylitti odotukseni. Hän auttoi minua saamaan tarvitsemani tiedot (whatsapp, facebook, tekstiviestit, puhelulokit, sovellukset jne.) Nopeammin ja halvemmin kuin olin kuvitellut. Ensimmäisen kerran puhuessamme meillä oli erittäin pitkä puhelinneuvonta, jossa hän antoi minulle kaikki vaihtoehdot, jotka hän voisi ajatella ratkaisemaan tapaukseni, ja hän jopa suositteli, että kokeilisin muita vaihtoehtoja ennen hänen palkkaamistaan, mikä osoittaa, että hän on rehellinen. Päätin palkata hänet ja olen iloinen siitä. Hän on tutkinnan asiantuntija ja loistava henkilö, ja jos sinulla on epärehellinen kumppani, älä epäröi lähettää hänelle VIESTIYHTEYSTIEDOT :: sähköposti: y3llowl4bs@protonmail.com verkkosivusto y3llowl4bs.com Whatsapp: +657206 0377

Erinomaiset ja ammattitaitoiset tutkintapalvelut. Palkkasin tämän hakkerin hyvin yksityiseen ja vaikeaan asiaan hakata aviopuolisoni puhelimeen, ja hän ylitti odotukseni. Hän auttoi minua saamaan tarvitsemani tiedot (whatsapp, facebook, tekstiviestit, puhelulokit, sovellukset jne.) Nopeammin ja halvemmin kuin olin kuvitellut. Ensimmäisen kerran puhuessamme meillä oli erittäin pitkä puhelinneuvonta, jossa hän antoi minulle kaikki vaihtoehdot, jotka hän voisi ajatella ratkaisemaan tapaukseni, ja hän jopa suositteli, että kokeilisin muita vaihtoehtoja ennen hänen palkkaamistaan, mikä osoittaa, että hän on rehellinen. Päätin palkata hänet ja olen iloinen siitä. Hän on tutkinnan asiantuntija ja loistava henkilö, ja jos sinulla on epärehellinen kumppani, älä epäröi lähettää hänelle VIESTIYHTEYSTIEDOT :: sähköposti: y3llowl4bs@protonmail.com verkkosivusto y3llowl4bs.com Whatsapp: +657206 0377

It's been a while since written to thank Dr. Maggi who helped me in my lifetime. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2016, I went to many hospitals for the cure but there was no solution so I was thinking how can I get a solution so that my body can be fine. One day my aunt rose introduce me to Dr. Maggi having seen so many testimonials online about his herbal medicine to cure HERPES and gave me his email: drmaggieherbalhome82@gmail.com so I am sending you an email. He told me all the things I need to do and also give myself instructions to follow, which followed correctly. Before he knew what was happening after a week, the HERPES that was in my body vanished. so if you are having herpes or any type of illness listed below *DIABETES *CANCER *STERILITY * CARDIOPATHY * HIV * COLD SORES * GENITAL WARTS  And you also want cure, you can also send him an email to: drmaggieherbalhome82@gmail.com or through his WhatsApp +14097946086

GREAT Dr Kabaka THAT HELP ME SAVE MY RELATIONSHIP... Good Day everybody, My name is Nancy am from Australia This is a very happy day of my life with the help of Dr Kabaka has rendered to me by helping me to get my husband back with his magic power and love spell. i was married for 8 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me, and was seeking for a divorce but when i came across Dr Kabaka email on the internet on how he help so many people to get their ex back and help fixing relationship and make people to be happy in their relationship. i explained my situation to him and then seek his help but to my greatest surprise he told me that he will help me with my case and here i am now celebrating because my Husband has change totally for good. he started begging me to forgive him that he is very sorry for everything, i was really surprised and was also happy, so that was how i forgive him and now we are living together happily than ever before,and He always want to be by me and can not do anything without my present. i am really happy with my marriage, what a great celebration. thank you Dr Kabaka i will forever be grateful to you if you need his help you can contact him through his email address; drkabakaspiritualtemple@gmail.com OR call his whatsapp number on +2349015857861

Greetings to the general public, I want to inform the public how I was cured of diabetes infections by a Doctor called Dr Oriane. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs  and  which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedies on DIABETES and I saw comments of people talking about how Dr Oriane cured them. when i contacted him. He gave me hope and sent a Herbal medicine to me that I took and it seriously worked for me, i am a free person now without problem, my DIABETES result came out negative. I pray for you Dr ORIANE God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and a great man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem, Email droriane6@gmail.com or whatsapp or call him +2349031652461.  

Greetings to the general public, i want to tell about how i was cured of HPV disease by a Doctor called DR MOMOH i was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HPV and i saw comment of people talking about how DR MOMOH cured them. I Was scared because i never believed in the Internet but i was convince to give him a try because i having no hope of been cured of HPV so i decided to contact him with his email that was listed on the comment when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem, my HPV result came out negative. I pray for you  God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and great man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem Email: dr.momoh9@gmail.com , or whatsApp him on this number +2347083724098   1. LOVE SPELL 2. ALS CURE 3. HEPATITIS B 4. HIV/AIDS CURE 5. HERPES CURE 6 SPIRITUAL HEALERS   

Few week ago I felt some pains and I went to the hospital my doc told me I had hpv about 1 yr and I need to start the treatment early, he gave me some medicine to be taking and I told him no I’ll not, because I hated taking medicine when I won’t not see cure for the purpose. After I got home I started getting worried searching for strong advice and I found valid natural treatment online lot people says they got hpv cure from Dr AGBOMIAN and I email Dr AGBOMIAN 3 days passed, I purchase his cure online some weeks after the process taking his treatment i got cured. I went for checkup twice after taking the natural treatment from the herbalist called Dr AGBOMIAN and i tested negative. contact him on email: Dragbomianherbalcured77@gmail.com

Few week ago I felt some pains and I went to the hospital my doc told me I had hpv about 1 yr and I need to start the treatment early, he gave me some medicine to be taking and I told him no I’ll not, because I hated taking medicine when I won’t not see cure for the purpose. After I got home I started getting worried searching for strong advice and I found valid natural treatment online lot people says they got hpv cure from Dr AGBOMIAN and I email Dr AGBOMIAN 3 days passed, I purchase his cure online some weeks after the process taking his treatment i got cured. I went for checkup twice after taking the natural treatment from the herbalist called Dr AGBOMIAN and i tested negative. contact him on email: Dragbomianherbalcured77@gmail.com

I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to .bring their doctor report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to Dr Aba, that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive or any STD diseases his email is: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2348107155060    

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