Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I was diagnosed of herpes 3 years, and ever since then i have been taking treatment to prevent outbreaks, burning and blisters, but there was no improvement until i came across testimonies of Dr. VOODOO on how he has been curing different people from different diseases all over the world, then i contacted him. After our conversation he sent me the medicine which i took according to his instructions for up to 2 weeks. After completing the medication i went back to my doctor for another test and the virus was all gone and i was completely cured, since then i have not had any signs of outbreak. I'm so filled with joy. With herbal medication Herpes Virus is 100% curable. I refer Dr VOODOO to everyone out there with the virus Email: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com Add Dr voodoo on whatsApp +2348140120719

HELLO everyone! Still don’t know the right words to express my Gratitude to dr. Omoru herbal formula...i was diagnosed with the HERPES VIRUS for the past 6 years, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found many testimonies of how doctor Omoru herbal mixture has been saving lives in an online research Like anybody would do, i'm Glad to be completely cured and freed from this virus.., i advice any one that is living with HERPES virus should Contact doctor Omoru today, because he has the cure to this virus...contact him on email omoru81@gmail.com or whatsApp him on +2348180828544

Greetings everyone. i am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr OKISIN a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I advIce you to contact Dr OKISIN on his email (dr.okisinsolutiontemple@gmail.com) ) or contact him on whatsapp number +2348149508633 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i recommend Dr OKISIN he is also specialized on  breast and boobs enlargement i will advise you to contact him for help   DR OKISIN whatsapp number +2348149508633...........  

My husband left me for another woman after one year of our marriage. I needed him back desperately because i loved him so much. I became very worried and needed help. On this faithful day  as i was browsing through the internet, I came across a particular testimony about this good DR IROSI help get ex back fast and stop a divorce or breakup and so on , So I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (return Love spell) for me. 48 hours later, my husband came back to me crying and begging for my forgiveness. Today I’m so happy and i want to recommend this great spell caster to anyone that truly needs an urgent solution to his or her broken relationships and marriage email him at:(DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM) Simply contact the great “DR IROSI” If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you., do not cry anymore-contact this powerful spell caster now. Thank you DR IROSI for saving my broken relationships and brought my husband back to me!” email him at: (DRIROSISOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM) or call/whatsapp him via: +2348118829771.    

Dr Moses Herbal medicine is a good remedy for herpes simplex virus cure. i want to inform the public how i was cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by DR Moses, i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Familiar, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about how DR Moses cured them, when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine via UPS ( Delivery service ) to me and i drank it, seriously it worked for me, am a free person now without any problem, my HERPES result came out negative... Contact him if you need his assistance email him ehichioyaspelltemple@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +2348057508654 

What a great and inspiring story! I was married for seven years without any child, because of this my husband start acting strange, coming home lately and not spending time with me any more and he divorced me. So i became very sad and lost in life because my doctor told me there is no way for me to get pregnant this really make life miserable for me. until i came across a friend who told me about DR AFRID from the Internet, how he has helped a lot of women with this similar problems that i am going through so i contacted him on: (drafridherbalhome11@gmail.com) and explained to him. he told me all what to provide before he could cast a reunite spell to bring back my husband which i did and he sent a powerful prayer which i had to say at mid night while he cast the love spell. It was a miracle, 24 hours later my one and only husband came back to me and apologize for all he has done and told me he is fully ready to support me in any thing i want,i quickly call DR AFRID and told him what was going on at that moment and he also prepared and sent me a herbal medicine which he said it will cure every unwanted diseases or infections that has been stopping me from conceiving then instructed me on how to use it before meeting with my husband. Behold after using this native herbs and root, few weeks later i started feeling pregnancy signs all over me, truly i was pregnant i just gave birth to a baby boy on the 1st of this month. I Vow to let the whole world know about DR AFRID for saving my relationship and for also giving me children i can proudly call my own today. For any woman who think it impossible, here is an opportunity for you to smile and bring happiness to your family kindly contact DR AFRID via Email on: (drafridherbalhome11.com). Indeed, he is a God sent to bring back lost lovers and bring you happiness  

Hello viewers around the Globe, I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the INTERNET about this specialist called Dr,MOSES and decided to contact him on his email: Dr.mosesherbalisthome@gmail.com) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr MOSES I also learn that Dr MOSES also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr MOSES now for help on his email (Dr.mosesherbalisthome@gmail.com) or add him on whatsapp line +2348109374702.............. HE ALSO RENDER THE FOLLOWING ......... WEAK ERECTION ............ . PREMATURE EJACULATION............. . LOW SPERM COUNT.....................

My Name is Faith, and am really grateful and thankful for what Dr voodoo has done for me and my family. I Was having HIV/AIDS for good three years with no solution, the diseases almost took my life and cause I was unable to work and I was also loosing lots of money for medication, but one faithful day when I went online, I met lots of testimonies about this great man so I decided to give it a try and to God be the glory he did it. he cured me of my diseases and am so happy and so pleased to Write about him today. if you need his help of you also want to get cured just the way I got mine, add Dr voodoo on whatsApp: +2348140120719 or just contact Dr voodoo via email, voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com

I am very happy for contacting Dr KUTA who helped me get my ex husband back from another woman after 3 years of separation. I am very happy because I never believed in spell casting and contacting spell casters to solve my problem but after 3 years of separating from my husband being single, I had to contact Dr KUTA after I read about him online and how he has been helping people. I am very glad I did. My husband came back to me within 48 hours, begged me and the kids who needed their father back with them and I am very happy. I found this man through testimonies that he can solve pregnancy and love problems that is why I contacted him to help me and within 48 hours my husband came back home and we are living happily together. His email is drkutaherbalcenter@gmail.com or Whats-app number on +2347054547814

I was having Herpes Simplex Virus then i came across a review of people saying that they got treated from Herpes Simplex Virus by Dr VOODOO., So i gave a try by contacting him through his email and explain my problem to him. He send natural medicine herbs to me and told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take the medicine, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after two weeks the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken by any deadly diseases like HERPES HIV, shingles,low sperm count or bringing back your ex lover, this great man is extremely the best in which I have seen if you also need a help, you can also email him at voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com Add Dr voodoo on whatsApp +2348140120719

What is there in the Penis Enlargement Remedy method that other stuff does not have? Well, for one thing, Penis Enlargement Remedy is safe as things included in the supplement are totally from nature. The use of stem cells is a genius invention since penis cannot be enlarged externally. Since the penis stops growing once it reaches its maximum point, the only thing to do is to go deep inside it. Growing penis on a cellular level is a practice that I thank god I found out about Dr Samson from Natural penis center who helped me ship some herbs with DHL to help me out from this shame email naturalpeniscentre@gmail.com Or naturalpeniscentre@hotmail.com  WhatsApp him now +2348145810121  

I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world, i never believed that their could be a complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites and comment section about DR VOKE a herbal doctor and the efficiency of his herbal medicine.I had to give him a try because i my self have been suffering from the same virus, and i was not disappointed. It took just few weeks i started using it i started noticing changes. I was cured . You can also contact him on his email: (doctorvoke@gmail.com) or text:+1(661)-797-0921

Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION , contact Dr Agbebo via whatsapp  +2348109374702.     the reason why most people are finding it difficult to enlarge Penis is because they believe on medical report, drugs and medical treatment which is nothelpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge your Penis permanently  Contact Dr Agbebo via Email : dr.agbeboherbalisthome@gmail.com or via WhatsApp :  +2348109374702.    HE ALSO RENDER THE FOLLOWING ......... WEAK ERECTION ............ . PREMATURE EJACULATION............. . LOW SPERM COUNT.....................

I want to share a testimony of how Dr.odoma herbal mixture cream saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing,and i was also having weak erection problem. I can't make love to my wife and my penis was just too small a full grown man like me having 2 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame to me. My wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor,she never enjoyed sex,i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until when i saw a testimony of how Dr.odoma herbal mixture cream have been helping people regarding their sex life, so i decided to give him a try and to my greatest surprise in less than one week of taking the herbs my penis grow to 9 inches i couldn't believe my eyes. And as i speak now my penis is now 10 inches and i do not have week erection again. I can make love to my wife longer in bed. And my marriage is now stable,my wife now enjoy me very well in bed. can contact him call or what-apps him through +2348100649947 . or email Drodomasolutionhome20@gmail.com he also specialize on the following thingsBREAST ENLARGEMENTBREAST LIFT & REDUCTIONPENILE/PENIS ENLARGEMENTGENERAL BODY SLIMMINGHIPS & THIGH REDUCTIONREGAIN VIRGINITY BACKThanks for the Enlarging my penis sir, you indeed save my marriage...I am really grateful sir

Hello everyone i Am Ben Mark and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,Akioya I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,Akioya and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR Akioya for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348105257464 ] you can checkout  is website; http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

Hello everyone i Am Ben Mark and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,Akioya I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,Akioya and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR Akioya for is herbal product. you can also reach him with emsil drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number [ +2348105257464 ] you can checkout  is website; http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

I would like to let all know that the size of your Penis really matters in your relationship or marriage. I got married to my wife about 1 month after we met on a photo studio, we lived happily for the first 3 months of our marriage until i and my wife started having quarrels at home because i couldn't satisfy her on bed with my little penis. Actually my penis was very small, it measured about 4.5 inch long on erection and i am 39 years old. My wife said it was forbidden by the women of this world. My wife started sleeping with other men outside. Sometimes i will return from work without finding my wife at home and whenever i call or ask her where she was, she will always snub at me and sometimes just tell me to go get a larger dick. All this continued for a long time and it hurt me so much that i was at the edge of breaking up on the marriage till when i read about a doctor called DR.OMOHAN. online. I never thought i could smile and be in a happy marriage again if not for the help of DR.OMOHAN. I got the doctors Emails:(dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com ) on the internet and i emailed him, and he got back to me with some encouraging words, he got me some herbs cream which i use for just 8 days and i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, and without surgery. This went on for a little period of about 10 days and to my surprise my wife keeps screaming that she love my big dick now. Now my wife no longer cheat on me, and my penis is now about 10.5 inches long on erection and off course very large round. And now my wife uses breasts, hips and bums enlargement. I and my wife are very happy for the help rendered to me by DR.OMOHAN , and i want to say a big thanks to Doctor for the help. You can contact the Doctor now on his Email:( dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com ) Am thankful to the doctor for helping me. his whataspp number +2348164816038 DOCTOR OMOHAN CAN AS WELL HELP THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS 1. HIV/AIDS SPELL 2. HERPES SPELL 3. CANCER SPELL 4 IF YOU WANT YOUR EX LOVER BACK SPELL 5 IF YOU NEED A BABY SPELLhim to solve 6 LOW SPERM COUNT SPELL get all your problem solve. No problem is too big for him to solve.  

Hello there Powerful Herbal treatment is a 100% guarantee for HSV cure. Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily eradicate herpes forever. I never believed it until I was helped and cured of my 16 months genital herpes with natural herbal medicines from Dr Gani. Where other medical prescribed drugs and treatments failed, Dr Gani natural herbs helped save me and my family from Genital herpes permanently and I’m so grateful for this. You can also get help from this great and powerful African Herbalist Dr Gani by reaching him via email: drganiherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp:+2348118778806. He can also cure STI and STDs, UTI.

DR Akioya Penis Enlargement Cream and pills has been used by men around the world This is the only Male enlargement supplement that has been PROVEN to enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY. Full Penis Enlargement Cream and pills when used will; * Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches * Increase in penis width by 20%. * Helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation. * Achieved longer, rock hard erections * All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent. Penis Enlargement Cream and pills is also: * 100% Herbal, 100% Safe * Very Discrete packaging and billing * 100% Satisfaction Guarantee ,We have the highest quality products Worldwide to improve your Love Life and your Fitness & Well being. We offer excellent value for money and provide you with a fast, efficient and friendly service. We supply men with alternative Herbal Medicine for ailments like Impotence (Erectile dysfunction),premature ejaculation, Fertility problems and other serious issues manhood Contact us right non via whatsapp him +23481052527464 or  Email Drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com you can checkout  is website; http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/    

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