Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

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Nama Perusahaan::"":":":"ONE BILLION RISING FUND Gmail Perusahaan:":":":":"::"onebillionrisingfund@gmail.com                        Selamat siang Namaku Nyonya Ahmed Neni dan saya berbicara sebagai salah satu orang paling bahagia di dunia saat ini dan saya mengatakan kepada diri sendiri bahwa pemberi pinjaman yang menyelamatkan keluarga saya dari situasi buruk kami, saya akan menceritakan namanya kepada dunia dan saya sangat bahagia dengan katakan bahwa keluarga saya kembali untuk selamanya karenaa saya membutuhkan pinjaman sebesar Rp150.000.000.00 untuk memulai hidup saya sejak saya adalah satu ibu dengan 3 anak dan dunia sepertinya sedang bergantung pada saya saat saya mencoba untuk mendapatkan pinjaman Dari bank dan online bank menolak saya pinjaman mereka mengatakan bahwa penghasilan saya rendah dan saya tidak memiliki jaminan untuk pinjaman jadi saya pergi online dan hal-hal menjadi lebih sulit karena mereka merobek uang saya dari saya dengan janji manis untuk membantu saya sampai saya bertemu dengan ALLAH mengirim pinjaman pinjaman yang mengubah hidup saya dan keluarga saya, ONE BILLION RISING FUND dimana Juruselamat ALLAH dikirim untuk menyelamatkan keluarga saya dan pada awalnya saya pikir ini tidak akan mungkin terjadi karena pengalaman masa lalu saya dan janji palsu tapi untuk mengejutkan saya, saya menerima pinjaman saya sebesar Rp150.000.000.00 dan saya akan menyarankan siapa saja yang benar-benar membutuhkan pinjaman untuk menghubungi perusahaan tersebut, melalui email di: """""""(((((onebillionrisingfund@gmail.com))))))))"""""""karena mereka adalah pemberi pinjaman yang paling pengertian dan baik hati. Jika Anda melihat bagaimana memastikan pinjaman atau bagaimana mendapatkan pinjaman asli, perusahaan dapat membantu Anda. " BBM: D8E814FC  Sebagai penerima manfaat dari perusahaan saya adalah bukti hidup dari kerja baik perusahaan dan saya meyakinkan Anda bahwa Anda akan mendapatkan formulir pinjaman ONE BILLION RISING FUND. cukup hubungi mereka dan ikuti proses pemberian pinjaman yang mudah Anda dapat menghubungi saya Ahmed Neni pada informasi lebih lanjut ((ahmedneni48@gmail.com)) Allahu akbar       Anda dapat menghubungi saya Ahmed Neni pada informasi lebih lanjut ((ahmedneni48@gmail.com)) Allahu akbar

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Nama Perusahaan::"":":":"ONE BILLION RISING FUND Gmail Perusahaan:":":":":"::"onebillionrisingfund@gmail.com                        Selamat siang Namaku Nyonya Ahmed Neni dan saya berbicara sebagai salah satu orang paling bahagia di dunia saat ini dan saya mengatakan kepada diri sendiri bahwa pemberi pinjaman yang menyelamatkan keluarga saya dari situasi buruk kami, saya akan menceritakan namanya kepada dunia dan saya sangat bahagia dengan katakan bahwa keluarga saya kembali untuk selamanya karenaa saya membutuhkan pinjaman sebesar Rp150.000.000.00 untuk memulai hidup saya sejak saya adalah satu ibu dengan 3 anak dan dunia sepertinya sedang bergantung pada saya saat saya mencoba untuk mendapatkan pinjaman Dari bank dan online bank menolak saya pinjaman mereka mengatakan bahwa penghasilan saya rendah dan saya tidak memiliki jaminan untuk pinjaman jadi saya pergi online dan hal-hal menjadi lebih sulit karena mereka merobek uang saya dari saya dengan janji manis untuk membantu saya sampai saya bertemu dengan ALLAH mengirim pinjaman pinjaman yang mengubah hidup saya dan keluarga saya, ONE BILLION RISING FUND dimana Juruselamat ALLAH dikirim untuk menyelamatkan keluarga saya dan pada awalnya saya pikir ini tidak akan mungkin terjadi karena pengalaman masa lalu saya dan janji palsu tapi untuk mengejutkan saya, saya menerima pinjaman saya sebesar Rp150.000.000.00 dan saya akan menyarankan siapa saja yang benar-benar membutuhkan pinjaman untuk menghubungi perusahaan tersebut, melalui email di: """""""(((((onebillionrisingfund@gmail.com))))))))"""""""karena mereka adalah pemberi pinjaman yang paling pengertian dan baik hati. Jika Anda melihat bagaimana memastikan pinjaman atau bagaimana mendapatkan pinjaman asli, perusahaan dapat membantu Anda. " BBM: D8E814FC  Sebagai penerima manfaat dari perusahaan saya adalah bukti hidup dari kerja baik perusahaan dan saya meyakinkan Anda bahwa Anda akan mendapatkan formulir pinjaman ONE BILLION RISING FUND. cukup hubungi mereka dan ikuti proses pemberian pinjaman yang mudah Anda dapat menghubungi saya Ahmed Neni pada informasi lebih lanjut ((ahmedneni48@gmail.com)) Allahu akbar       Anda dapat menghubungi saya Ahmed Neni pada informasi lebih lanjut ((ahmedneni48@gmail.com)) Allahu akbar

HOW DR OSEMU CURED ME FROM HERPES WITH HIS HERBALPRODUCTS   I want to inform the general public how I was cured of HERPES Simplex Virus by a Doctor called Dr Osemu. I visited different hospitals but they gave me a list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which are very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedies on HERPES and I saw comments of people talking about how Doctor Dr Osemu cured them.When I emailed him drosemusolutionhome@gmail.com he gave me hope and sent a Herbal medicine to me that I took as instructed and it seriously worked for me, i am a free person now without problem, my HERPES result came out negative. I pray for you Dr Osemu God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and great man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem reach him on his Email Address at: drosemusolutionhome@gmail.com.

AM SO HAPPY TODAY MY HERPES VIRUS AND HEPATITIS B IS CURE,MY LIFE IS BACK AGAIN THANKS GO BE TO GOD AND THE GREAT DR IGENE My name is LEO I lives in the United States.I want you all to help me thank Dr.Igene who helped cured me from HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS AND HEPATITIS B in just one (1) week. I got to know him from a friend who he helped, at first I doubt if his herbal product would work until my friend advice me to tried. After which I decided to try to God be the glory am now a living testimony, all thanks to DR.Igene if not him I would not have been healed so easily.. You can reach him on Whatsapp +2348133321898 OR via EMAIL:{drigeneherbalhome613@gmail.com} today for speed Medicine help you can also contact him on cure on 1. HSV 1&2,Hepatitis B 2. HIV CURE 3. STROKE AND 4. DIABETES MELLITUS 5. SIMPLEX HERPES 6. RINGING EAR 7..Fibriod cure 8. Epilepsy cure

AM SO HAPPY TODAY MY HERPES VIRUS AND HEPATITIS B IS CURE,MY LIFE IS BACK AGAIN THANKS GO BE TO GOD AND THE GREAT DR IGENE My name is LEO I lives in the United States.I want you all to help me thank Dr.Igene who helped cured me from HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS AND HEPATITIS B in just one (1) week. I got to know him from a friend who he helped, at first I doubt if his herbal product would work until my friend advice me to tried. After which I decided to try to God be the glory am now a living testimony, all thanks to DR.Igene if not him I would not have been healed so easily.. You can reach him on Whatsapp +2348133321898 OR via EMAIL:{drigeneherbalhome613@gmail.com} today for speed Medicine help you can also contact him on cure on 1. HSV 1&2,Hepatitis B 2. HIV CURE 3. STROKE AND 4. DIABETES MELLITUS 5. SIMPLEX HERPES 6. RINGING EAR 7..Fibriod cure 8. Epilepsy cure

Hello viewers! Please share this for others to know about the cure for herpes1&2. I'm here to testify on how i was cured from HERPES 1&2 with the use of herbs. I got the herbs from Dr Igene and he gave me instructions on how to use it. I took the herbal product for a week and 5days after which i go for a blood test and the result was Negative. I waited for another two months and retested the result was still negative and my doctor told me I'm completely free from herpes1&2 and this Gladys my heart and i wish to share it for the benefit of those living with herpes1&2 to also get the herbs from Dr Igene and get cured just like me. You can contact Dr Igene on his Email: drigeneherbalhome613@gmail.com or call him on his phone number and WhatsApp +2348133321898 also through his Dr Igene also have the cure on the following diseases HERPES, LUPUS, HPV, CANCER, DIABETES, SHINGLES,VAGINAL INFECTION, HSV1&2 and so many more.

DR SAYO HERBAL HEALER CURED ME FROM HERPES VIRUS VIEW HIS WEBSITE http://sayoherbalhome.com/         I have been suffering from Herpes for the past 3 years and 8 months, and ever since then i have been taking series of treatment but there was no improvement until i came across testimonies of Dr Sayo on how he has been curing different people from different diseases all over the world, then i contacted him as well. After our conversation he sent me the medicine which i took according to his instructions. When i was done taking the herbal medicine i went for a medical checkup and to my greatest surprise i was cured from Herpes. My heart is so filled with joy. If you are suffering from Herpes or any other disease you can contact Dr Sayo today on this Email address: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on this Tell.Number +2349012175679 or contact him on FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/

My husband and I have been married for about 7 yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly cared about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Jumba can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promised never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. My family and I are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Jumba . If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his Email:  wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com WhatsApp +19085174108 Website : https://drjumbaspellhome.wordpress.com

I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring their doctors report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to Dr patrick that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive diseases his email is: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2348055367947         

I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring their doctors report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to Dr patrick that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive diseases his email is: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2348055367947         

I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring their doctors report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to Dr patrick that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive diseases his email is: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2348055367947         

Hello my name is Susan from USA i want to share an amazing experience i had with the almighty Priest Ade, my husband Greg filed for a divorce i was really devastated i cried day and night everyday i told a friend of mine about the situation and she told me about the powerful spell caster Priest Ade i was feeling a little bit skeptical about it but i just decided to give him a try i did everything he asked me to do and he promised me 24hrs result and the next morning to my greatest surprise it was Greg on his kneels begging me to forgive and accept him back i'm so happy all thanks to Priest Ade he can also help you contact  ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com OR ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com https://ancientspiritspell.wordpress.com WhatsApp +2347059715465 . 

Hello! My name is Elizabeth, Four years ago, i tested herpes Virus (HSV-2) positive and i was told that there is no cure that i will live with it till i die, The shock of knowing that the Virus has no cure was something that scared me most. I was never feeling good because each time i intend to be happy, the thought that there is no cure will come into my mind and i will just be sad once more. I lose weight unknowingly to me and it was as if i was going to die, everyday is always ful of fear. After four years as i was online, i came accross a testimony about how Doctor Ojeabulu has done so many things and cure so many people then i showed my Doctor that there is a herbal cure for the Virus and the Doctor said there is nothing as such. I decided to give it a try because my present condition was nothing to write about then i write to the email i saw online and he responded and told me all that i need to know. I told my friend and she told me never to believe anything i saw online, i believe her because i was scammed earlier. But i wanted to change my condition then i proceed with the purchase of Doctor Ojeabulu medicine. After some days that i purchased the medicine then i started observing some changes in my health and i went to the hospital and i tested negative. Doctor has done so many other great things that you and i have seen online, a man complained that his business is in stagnat position and doctor Ojeabulu help him to be successful, a woman lose her husband to another lady after one month of marriage and Doctor Ojeabulu help her also to balance her marriage. Doctor Ojeabulu has so many solutions to any problem that you might be facing that seems to be very difficult to you now. Give it a try and you will see great change in your life. HE IS A SPIRITUALIST, HE HAS ANSWER TO ALMOST ALL YOUR PROBLEMS, CONTACT HIM TODAY AND SEE THE DIFFERENCE IN YOUR LIFE. Contact him with this email: ojeabulusolutionhome@gmail.com https://drojeabulusolutionhome.wordpress.com/

Hello! My name is Elizabeth, Four years ago, i tested herpes Virus (HSV-2) positive and i was told that there is no cure that i will live with it till i die, The shock of knowing that the Virus has no cure was something that scared me most. I was never feeling good because each time i intend to be happy, the thought that there is no cure will come into my mind and i will just be sad once more. I lose weight unknowingly to me and it was as if i was going to die, everyday is always ful of fear. After four years as i was online, i came accross a testimony about how Doctor Ojeabulu has done so many things and cure so many people then i showed my Doctor that there is a herbal cure for the Virus and the Doctor said there is nothing as such. I decided to give it a try because my present condition was nothing to write about then i write to the email i saw online and he responded and told me all that i need to know. I told my friend and she told me never to believe anything i saw online, i believe her because i was scammed earlier. But i wanted to change my condition then i proceed with the purchase of Doctor Ojeabulu medicine. After some days that i purchased the medicine then i started observing some changes in my health and i went to the hospital and i tested negative. Doctor has done so many other great things that you and i have seen online, a man complained that his business is in stagnat position and doctor Ojeabulu help him to be successful, a woman lose her husband to another lady after one month of marriage and Doctor Ojeabulu help her also to balance her marriage. Doctor Ojeabulu has so many solutions to any problem that you might be facing that seems to be very difficult to you now. Give it a try and you will see great change in your life. HE IS A SPIRITUALIST, HE HAS ANSWER TO ALMOST ALL YOUR PROBLEMS, CONTACT HIM TODAY AND SEE THE DIFFERENCE IN YOUR LIFE. Contact him with this email: ojeabulusolutionhome@gmail.com https://drojeabulusolutionhome.wordpress.com/

Hello! My name is Elizabeth, Four years ago, i tested herpes Virus (HSV-2) positive and i was told that there is no cure that i will live with it till i die, The shock of knowing that the Virus has no cure was something that scared me most. I was never feeling good because each time i intend to be happy, the thought that there is no cure will come into my mind and i will just be sad once more. I lose weight unknowingly to me and it was as if i was going to die, everyday is always ful of fear. After four years as i was online, i came accross a testimony about how Doctor Ojeabulu has done so many things and cure so many people then i showed my Doctor that there is a herbal cure for the Virus and the Doctor said there is nothing as such. I decided to give it a try because my present condition was nothing to write about then i write to the email i saw online and he responded and told me all that i need to know. I told my friend and she told me never to believe anything i saw online, i believe her because i was scammed earlier. But i wanted to change my condition then i proceed with the purchase of Doctor Ojeabulu medicine. After some days that i purchased the medicine then i started observing some changes in my health and i went to the hospital and i tested negative. Doctor has done so many other great things that you and i have seen online, a man complained that his business is in stagnat position and doctor Ojeabulu help him to be successful, a woman lose her husband to another lady after one month of marriage and Doctor Ojeabulu help her also to balance her marriage. Doctor Ojeabulu has so many solutions to any problem that you might be facing that seems to be very difficult to you now. Give it a try and you will see great change in your life. HE IS A SPIRITUALIST, HE HAS ANSWER TO ALMOST ALL YOUR PROBLEMS, CONTACT HIM TODAY AND SEE THE DIFFERENCE IN YOUR LIFE. Contact him with this email: ojeabulusolutionhome@gmail.com https://drojeabulusolutionhome.wordpress.com/

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