Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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It’s obvious some patients with herpes are being enslaved to the antiviral and other supplementary Orthodox medicine just to help suppress the virus and not a cure. I have been with the virus since 2015 until I was introduced by a blogger who also narrated her story online on how she was cured of Genital Herpes after using Dr Igene Herbal Medicine. This is a year and 2 weeks since I was delivered from genital Herpes. All thanks to God for using this Great herbalist to heal me. I have promised to keep telling good things about Dr Igene, Please feel free to share Your problems with him and don’t forget to tell him I did refer you to Him. Thanks. Write him on Email: drigeneherbalhome613@gmail.com OR WhatsApp +2348133321898. He deals with Alzheimer virus, Cancer, HIV, Herpes, Genital, warts, ALS, BV, UTI, Virginal infection, Genital, Wart, HPV, Hepatitis A/B, Good luck, HSV, Pregnancy, eczema,

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Am very glad to share this testimony with everyone for the marvelous work Dr Aba has done for my life, 6months ago i was diagnosed with herpes virus and ever since then i have been very unhappy, i was so down broken everyday, until one day when i came across a shocking testimony about how Dr Aba cured someone of his herpes virus, without wasting much time i contacted him immediately on his .email address: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com and after i explain myself to him about how terrible i have been, and he assure me that he will help me to cure my herpes virus,after he has prepared the herbal medicine he sent it to me and when i have received it and started using it i was totally cure within 2weeks, i am forever grateful to Dr Aba for helping me out with his herpes prescription that cured my virus. contact his email address: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his Mobile number:+2348107155060    

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Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I will be cured from HERPES virus again.I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HSV) for the past 4 years now, I had spent a lot of money going from one place to another, hospitals have been my home every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR salami helped someone in curing his Herpes Disease disease, quickly I copied his contact which is just to give him a test I spoke to him, he told me that there is no medical hospital that has the cure to herpes disease, i was supprise when i heard that from him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me which he did then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure behold I was free from this herpes disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now please BROTHER, SISTER, MOTHER and FATHER he is great a great man, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just contact him on whatsapp Via:( +234 814 314 2163) or email him on Dr.salamiherbalcenter180@gmail.com  Website:https://drsalamiherbalcent.wixsite.com/doctorsalami  HE CAN ALSO CURE DISEASES LIKE 1*HIV 2*DIABETICS 3*HEPATITIS B 4*CANCER, 5*PREGNANT ISSUES 6*PERIOD ISSUES Please share this round so you can also save more souls and Good Luck

I am here to give my testimony about Dr Ose  who helped me in my life, i want to inform the public how i was cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by dr Ose spiritual, i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about how dr Ose spiritual cured them. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, my HERPES result came out negative. I am so happy as i am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that their is no cure for herpes that is Not true just contact him and get cure from dr Ose spirirtual healing spell cure of all kinds of sickness you may have. Remember delay in treatment leads to death email him @ {oseremenspelltemple@gmail.com} whatsapp  +234813 648 2342  https://www.facebook.com/Dr-odion-spell-temple-110513923938220/ 

Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I will be cured from HERPES virus again.I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HSV) for the past 4 years now, I had spent a lot of money going from one place to another, hospitals have been my home every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR salami helped someone in curing his Herpes Disease disease, quickly I copied his contact which is just to give him a test I spoke to him, he told me that there is no medical hospital that has the cure to herpes disease, i was supprise when i heard that from him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me which he did then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure behold I was free from this herpes disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now please BROTHER, SISTER, MOTHER and FATHER he is great a great man, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just contact him on whatsapp Via:( +234 814 314 2163) or email him on Dr.salamiherbalcenter180@gmail.com  Website:https://drsalamiherbalcent.wixsite.com/doctorsalami  HE CAN ALSO CURE DISEASES LIKE 1*HIV 2*DIABETICS 3*HEPATITIS B 4*CANCER, 5*PREGNANT ISSUES 6*PERIOD ISSUES Please share this round so you can also save more souls and Good Luck

Its a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV1/2) for good four (4) years, six (6) months and twelve (12) day with my calculations, before I meet the great Dr. USELU. I am Tina Richard from Fresno California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus.Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatment but no improvement. I meet Dr.USELU online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr.USELU WhatsApp +2347052898482 or E-mail: dr.uselucaregvier@gmail.com

How I get cured from genital herpes some months ago after I was tested positive. I was recommended to a doctor who helped me cure the virus with some natural herbal remedies . am so happy now. He treats different ailments too.  I can tell the public now that I am now free from the horrible disease called herpes, all thanks to Dr.MOMOH that is why I want to leave his email address and What's app contact just if you want to contact him for help. you reach this great herbal doctor via his call or whatsapp on +2347083724098  email on (dr.momoh9@gmail.com) website on: https://drmomohherbaltreatment.wordpress.com   One thing I like about Dr MOMOH is honesty. His is very polite with his customers, everything he told me was what he did. His herbal medicines are very affordable, effective, and confidential.

I want to share to the world how Dr Maggi helped me cure my Herpes with his herbs i never believe it will work because i was introduce to him by my friend who was cure of herpes by Dr Maggi, so i will tell you all who is looking for a cure to their herpes, he took research before he could finally get the solution to it. thank God today am a beneficiary to these cure and i went back to the hospital after 7days of taking the herbs and i was tested negative, and he also cure any kind of  cancer without any surgery and he heal with natural herb. please i urge you to contact him now through his email address: drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com or call/whatsApp him on +19179796387

I want to share to the world how Dr Maggi helped me cure my Herpes with his herbs i never believe it will work because i was introduce to him by my friend who was cure of herpes by Dr Maggi, so i will tell you all who is looking for a cure to their herpes, he took research before he could finally get the solution to it. thank God today am a beneficiary to these cure and i went back to the hospital after 7days of taking the herbs and i was tested negative, and he also cure any kind of  cancer without any surgery and he heal with natural herb. please i urge you to contact him now through his email address: drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com or call/whatsApp him on +19179796387

I want to share to the world how Dr Maggi helped me cure my Herpes with his herbs i never believe it will work because i was introduce to him by my friend who was cure of herpes by Dr Maggi, so i will tell you all who is looking for a cure to their herpes, he took research before he could finally get the solution to it. thank God today am a beneficiary to these cure and i went back to the hospital after 7days of taking the herbs and i was tested negative, and he also cure any kind of  cancer without any surgery and he heal with natural herb. please i urge you to contact him now through his email address: drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com or call/whatsApp him on +19179796387

Am very glad to share this testimony with everyone for the marvelous work Dr Aba has done for my life, 6months ago i was diagnosed with herpes virus and ever since then i have been very unhappy, i was so down broken everyday, until one day when i came across a shocking testimony about how Dr Aba cured someone of his herpes virus, without wasting much time i contacted him immediately on his email address: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com and after i explain myself to him about how terrible i have been, and he assure me that he will help me to cure my herpes virus,after he has prepared the herbal medicine he sent it to me .and when i have received it and started using it i was totally cure within 2weeks, i am forever grateful to Dr Aba for helping me out with his herpes prescription that cured my virus. contact his email address: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his Mobile number:+2348107155060    

I want to share to the world how Dr Maggi helped me cure my Herpes with his herbs i never believe it will work because i was introduce to him by my friend who was cure of herpes by Dr Maggi, so i will tell you all who is looking for a cure to their herpes, he took research before he could finally get the solution to it. thank God today am a beneficiary to these cure and i went back to the hospital after 7days of taking the herbs and i was tested negative, and he also cure any kind of  cancer without any surgery and he heal with natural herb. please i urge you to contact him now through his email address: drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com or call/whatsApp him on +19179796387

HERBAL DR OKUOFOH WHO PREPARE HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE ALL KINDS OF DISEASES INCLUDING HERPES DISEASE. I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost A year now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to be in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal Dr. Okuofoh who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Okuofoh via his email (drokuofohherbalhomehealing@gmail.com ) write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Okuofoh instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr. Okuofoh to get rid of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2349050141449.

HERBAL DR OKUOFOH WHO PREPARE HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE ALL KINDS OF DISEASES INCLUDING HERPES DISEASE. I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost A year now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to be in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal Dr. Okuofoh who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Okuofoh via his email (drokuofohherbalhomehealing@gmail.com ) write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Okuofoh instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr. Okuofoh to get rid of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2349050141449.

DR. GREAT IS THE BEST SPELL CASTER ONLINE WHO RESTORED MY BROKEN RELATIONSHIP AND I HIGHLY RECOMMENDS DR. GREAT TO ANYONE IN NEED OF HELP!  My husband left me for another woman 3 months ago and ever since then my life have been filled with pains sorrow and heart break because he was my first love whom i have spent my entire life with. A friend of mine told me he saw some testimonies of a spell caster called Dr Great that he can bring back lover within some few days, i laugh it out and said i am not interested but because of the love my friend had for me, she consulted the great spell caster on my behalf and to my greatest surprise after 2 days my husband called me for the very first time after three months that he is missing me and that he is so sorry for every thing he made me went through.He came back to me and now we are happy together. I still can’t believe it, because it highly unbelievable. Thank you Dr.Great for bringing back my lover and also to my lovely friend who interceded on my behalf, for any one who might need the help of this great spell caster here is the email address: infinitylovespell@yahoo.com  or  infinitylovespell@gmail.com you can also call him or add him on Whats-app:+2348118829899  View his blog  http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

hello I?m from USA , I have been suffering from HERPES virus for the past 3 years and i had constant pain especially in my knees, During the first year I had faith in God that i will be healed someday, but this disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came in search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of so many people who has been healed from Hepatitis B, HIV/AID, Diabetes,HSV, ALS HPV and Cancer by this Man called Dr, Akioya and he also gave the email address of this man and advice we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Akioya telling him about my HERPES Virus he told me not to worry that i will be cured from this deadly disease i never believed it, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man, few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the Doctor assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my medical doctor to confirmed if i have be finally cured behold it was true,and now i?m cure totally with Dr.Akioya, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr,Akioya on this email; drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or whatsapp him +2348105257464

hello I?m from USA , I have been suffering from HERPES virus for the past 3 years and i had constant pain especially in my knees, During the first year I had faith in God that i will be healed someday, but this disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came in search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of so many people who has been healed from Hepatitis B, HIV/AID, Diabetes,HSV, ALS HPV and Cancer by this Man called Dr, Akioya and he also gave the email address of this man and advice we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Akioya telling him about my HERPES Virus he told me not to worry that i will be cured from this deadly disease i never believed it, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man, few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the Doctor assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my medical doctor to confirmed if i have be finally cured behold it was true,and now i?m cure totally with Dr.Akioya, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr,Akioya on this email; drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or whatsapp him +2348105257464

hello I?m from USA , I have been suffering from HERPES virus for the past 3 years and i had constant pain especially in my knees, During the first year I had faith in God that i will be healed someday, but this disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came in search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of so many people who has been healed from Hepatitis B, HIV/AID, Diabetes,HSV, ALS HPV and Cancer by this Man called Dr, Akioya and he also gave the email address of this man and advice we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Akioya telling him about my HERPES Virus he told me not to worry that i will be cured from this deadly disease i never believed it, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man, few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the Doctor assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my medical doctor to confirmed if i have be finally cured behold it was true,and now i?m cure totally with Dr.Akioya, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr,Akioya on this email; drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or whatsapp him +2348105257464

Yang mana kamu? KEPEMILIKAN SATU-SATUNYA KEMITRAAN KERJA SAMA PERSEROAN TERBATAS KOOPERATIF Saya ingin menggunakan media ini agar Anda semua tahu bahwa mendapatkan pinjaman tidak sesulit dan stres seperti yang Anda pikirkan Saya Rina Mariana asli bandung. Indonesia Saya mendapat pinjaman saya dari ONE BILLION RISING FUND dan proses aplikasi saya mudah, lancar dan dapat dimengerti dan saya telah diberkati sejak saya baru di perusahaan pinjaman dan hidup saya tidak lagi menjadi bahan tertawaan bagi orang-orang melainkan mereka datang kepada saya sekarang untuk meminta nasihat dan bagaimana membantu mereka secara finansial dan sejauh ini saya telah memperkenalkan cukup banyak orang ke perusahaan pinjaman dan mereka juga mendapatkan pinjaman dari ONE BILLION RISING FUND Saya akan menyarankan jika Anda sedang membutuhkan pinjaman dan ingin mendapatkan bantuan karena kami telah mendapatkan bantuan dari ONE BILLION RISING FUND kemudian hubungi perusahaan pinjaman melalui gmail di bawah ini dan dapatkan transformasi dalam hidup Anda secara finansial dan bisnis Anda seperti yang kami lakukan Mereka yakin, aman, andal, dan terbuka untuk pelanggan Mengapa saya menyukai mereka adalah karena Anda sangat bebas bertanya tentang pinjaman Anda dan layanan mereka 24/7 Nama Perusahaan:::ONE BILLION RISING FUND Gmail: onebillionrisingfund@gmail.com Hubungi saya Nama ::::::::::: Unung Rina Marian Gmail :::::::::::: rinamariana874@gmail.com Pekerjaan ::::: KEPEMILIKAN SATU-SATUNYA Jumlah pinjaman ::::: ;; $ 10.000,00 Kota Saat Ini :::::::::: Jakarta

Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection cant cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. I read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of herpes, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr. Ogba Kosu herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with HIV for the past 7 years but Dr. Ogba Kuso cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from herpes and they were cured too. I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs. He is also a spell caster, he cast spells to restore broken marriages and a good luck spells to prosper and excel in life. Contact Dr. Ogba Kosu on: drogbakosu@gmail.com Phone/Whatsap no: +2348137291215 facebook.com/Dr.OgbaKosucurecenter/

i am here to testify to the world about the goodness of david muhammed i was sicking of herpes1&2 and i was looking for help the one that will help me, know one to help, when my friend tell me about david muhammed and he gave me his email and i contacted him,and i tell him my problem, he told me that he have the herbal cure to the herpes1&2 i was so happy to hear that and he also reference me to many people that he help with the herbal cure too, i was so happy that there is cure to this herpes1&2 i requested for the product in the next 4days the herbal was in my place in USA, i took it according to his instruction after everything and i went to hospital to do checkup and the result was negative and i was very happy about it,i email him again and thank him and i was wanted to pay him, he said known i should take my money away, he told me that i should tell the world about him,so i am now here to tell the world how david muhammed save my life, he is a man with is own destination you can believe in him with your life and he will give you good result, he also carry out all kinds of sickness like cancer Money spell Health portion spell Promotion in business Attraction spell Witch home Ex back spell Spiritual healer spell Love spell Lottery spell Pregnancy spell Promotion spell Voodoo Get married spell Soulmate spell Protection spell HIV/aids Get pregnant Cure any kind in body disease E.T.C contact him via his email addres: muhammedspellcast@gmail.com or You can also contact him on WhatsApp +234759007941

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