Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

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I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

I need real instant death spell / Instant Revenge caster that works fast overnight dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com A big thanks to Dr.Murugu I never believe that there still exists a real death spell caster after all these years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until I was opportune to meet Dr.Murugu a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr.Murugu had helped before, when I contacted him with his email via dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com I explain how my ex has been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and I need to end it by killing her, and I don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so I needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why I decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as I have contacted the right person at the right time, I co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr.Murugu b indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact Murugu for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth, death spell to kill anyone who has scammed you in the past, spell for an increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex-lover back, if things are not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email dr.makinidrmurugu@gmail.com OR dr.makinidrmurugu@yahoo.com Website: https://drmuruguspellhome.com Website: https://drmakinidrmurugu.blogspot.com Whatsapp number +90 538 069 4285.

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