Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I have be suffered from (HSV 2) for 2 years, I was given some tablets at the hospital but I refused to take it, They said I have to be on it for life so I don't want to take a drugs everyday for life. No point in taking medicine everyday when u won't get cure from it and I was advice to seek for natural herbal cure, after some time I found Dr Iyoha , he"s the most trustful herbalist that have herbs to cure wicked symptoms, I email Dr Iyoha , for 2 weeks been his patient he cured my (HSV 2) with his herbal medicine. I only used his natural herbs for two weeks it was 100% cure. I'm not (HSV 2) patient anymore. I'm happy i finally got cured out of this mess been in my body for 2 years. I also recommend you if you're living with herpes virus i also want you to be free contact Dr Iyoha with his email attach to my post. driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com or you can call : +1 407 337 9869 .

I have been suffering from (HSV 2) for 2 years, I was given some tablets at the hospital but I refused to take it, They said I have to be on it for life so I don't want to take drugs everyday for life. No point in taking medicine everyday when u won't get cure from it and I was advice to seek for natural herbal cure, after some time I found dr Aba, he"s the most trustful herbalist that have herbs to cure wicked .symptoms, I emailed dr Aba, for 2 weeks been his patient he cured my (HSV 2) with his herbal medicine. I only used his natural herbs for two weeks. It was 100% cured. I'm not a (HSV 2) patient anymore. I'm happy I finally got cured out of this mess that has been in my body for 2 years. I also recommend you if you're living with herpes virus I also want you to be free. contact dr Aba with his email attached to my post. dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whats-app his cell phone number on +2348107155060  

I still don’t know the right words to express my gratitude to this great man Dr. Aba. After been diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2months ago, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found testimonies of .Great Dr. aba online research and on Facebook, Like anybody would be, I was very skeptical about contacting him, but i later did and he opened up to me and told me what was involved and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, I was cured from herpes by the herbal medication I received from him. I never thought that herpes can be cured, from the bottom of my heart I'm truly grateful,i pray you have long life so you can help many more people on earth with your herbal medical support, You can Email him via email dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or for easy and fast communication you can also call or add him on whats-app with this mobile number +2348107155060, one thing i love most about DR aba is honestly, and he is very polite with his patience, everything he told me was what he did, and his herbal medicine are very affordable.    

I have been suffering from (HSV 2) for 2 years, I was given some tablets at the hospital but I refused to take it, They said I have to be on it for life so I don't want to take drugs everyday for life. No point in taking medicine everyday when u won't get cure from it and I was advice to seek for natural herbal cure, after some time I found dr Aba, he"s the most trustful herbalist that have herbs to cure wicked symptoms, I emailed dr Aba, for 2 weeks been his patient he cured my (HSV 2) with his herbal medicine. I only used/ his natural herbs for two weeks. It was 100% cured. I'm not a (HSV 2) patient anymore. I'm happy I finally got cured out of this mess that has been in my body for 2 years. I also recommend you if you're living with herpes virus I also want you to be free. contact dr Aba with his email attached to my post. dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whats-app his cell phone number on +2348107155060,  

I have been suffering from (HSV 2) for 2 years, I was given some tablets at the hospital but I refused to take it, They said I have to be on it for life so I don't want to take drugs everyday for life. No point in taking medicine everyday when u won't get cure from it and I was advice to seek for natural herbal cure, after some time I found dr Aba, he"s the most trustful herbalist that have herbs to cure wicked symptoms, I emailed dr Aba, for 2 weeks been his patient he cured my (HSV 2) with his herbal medicine. I only used .his natural herbs for two weeks. It was 100% cured. I'm not a (HSV 2) patient anymore. I'm happy I finally got cured out of this mess that has been in my body for 2 years. I also recommend you if you're living with herpes virus I also want you to be free. contact dr Aba with his email attached to my post. dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whats-app his cell phone number on +2348107155060  

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I always have cold sores outbreaks when on my periods and they were very terrible, when I went for test the doctor said I had herpes virus. I just want to share a brief testimony of how Dr Sikies completely cured me from herpes virus with his natural medicine. It became a burden to me having outbreaks all time and it was so terrible to look upon while on mirror than going out with it so would rather lock up myself indoors all times of outbreak. I stumbled upon a testimony of someone this Herbal doctor has cured on the internet and took the doctor's email:drsikies@gmail.com to contact him. I'm completely whole today free from this virus and horrible outbreaks All thanks to Dr Sikies!! Here is his website: https://drsikiesherbalcure.weebly.com You can quickly reach me on via mail:monetwilson702@gmail.com

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I always have cold sores outbreaks when on my periods and they were very terrible, when I went for test the doctor said I had herpes virus. I just want to share a brief testimony of how Dr Sikies completely cured me from herpes virus with his natural medicine. It became a burden to me having outbreaks all time and it was so terrible to look upon while on mirror than going out with it so would rather lock up myself indoors all times of outbreak. I stumbled upon a testimony of someone this Herbal doctor has cured on the internet and took the doctor's email:drsikies@gmail.com to contact him. I'm completely whole today free from this virus and horrible outbreaks All thanks to Dr Sikies!! Here is his website: https://drsikiesherbalcure.weebly.com You can quickly reach me on via mail:monetwilson702@gmail.com

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Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

Herpes is a serious and recurring disease which can't be cured through drugs or injections by the American doctors but the best way to deal with Herpes is by taking natural herbs medicine for it,  I have read about DR EDAGHONGHON the great herbalist doctor who cure me from herpes  with his powerful herbal medicine.  i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via UPS SPEED POST and it got to me after 3 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i am so happy! for the people suffering from the following diseases, Cancer, hypothyroidism, Herpes, COPD, HIV, Arthritis, Hpv, Infections,Liver Disease,, Autoimmune Diseases, Parkinson's disease,,Lupus and more should contact him for his herbal medicine because i am a living testimony and i was cured of herpes and his medicine is legit.  i sent him what he requested and he sent me his medicine which i took for 3 good weeks and today am out here with negative result. when i went for test i was so happy after going through his medication. you can reach him through his email: dr.edaghonghonherbalhome@gmail.com or call whatsapp number:+2349056731866. he will help you out.

Herpes is a serious and recurring disease which can't be cured through drugs or injections by the American doctors but the best way to deal with Herpes is by taking natural herbs medicine for it,  I have read about DR EDAGHONGHON the great herbalist doctor who cure me from herpes  with his powerful herbal medicine.  i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via UPS SPEED POST and it got to me after 3 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i am so happy! for the people suffering from the following diseases, Cancer, hypothyroidism, Herpes, COPD, HIV, Arthritis, Hpv, Infections,Liver Disease,, Autoimmune Diseases, Parkinson's disease,,Lupus and more should contact him for his herbal medicine because i am a living testimony and i was cured of herpes and his medicine is legit.  i sent him what he requested and he sent me his medicine which i took for 3 good weeks and today am out here with negative result. when i went for test i was so happy after going through his medication. you can reach him through his email: dr.edaghonghonherbalhome@gmail.com or call whatsapp number:+2349056731866. he will help you out.

I have been suffering from (HSV 2) for 2 years, I was given some tablets at the hospital but I refused to take it, They said I have to be on it for life so I don't want to take drugs everyday for life. No point in taking medicine everyday when u won't get cure from it and I was .advice to seek for natural herbal cure, after some time I found dr Aba, he"s the most trustful herbalist that have herbs to cure wicked symptoms, I emailed dr Aba, for 2 weeks been his patient he cured my (HSV 2) with his herbal medicine. I only used his natural herbs for two weeks. It was 100% cured. I'm not a (HSV 2) patient anymore. I'm happy I finally got cured out of this mess that has been in my body for 2 years. I also recommend you if you're living with herpes virus I also want you to be free. contact dr Aba with his email attached to my post. dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whats-app his cell phone number on +2348107155060.  

I was depressed when doctor told me that I have been diagnosed with Herpes disease… I thought about my Family, I know my Family will face a serious problem when I'm gone, I lost hope and I wept all day, but one day I was searching the internet I found Dr, UMA contact whatsApp number.(+2347035619585) I called him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr, UMA herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to Dr, UMA and very happy with my hubby and family. you can also reach him through WhatsApp number (+2347035619585) or email him dr.umaherbalcenter@gmail.com ) He can do so many things (1)Ex Back (2)HPV infection (3)Money Spell (4)penis enlargement (5)breast enlargement (6)pregnancy (7)Diabetes.

Good luck to anyone reading this true life story of mine, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year, And I Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me, I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health. He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative. My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too, And Help Me To Thank Dr OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine, His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

I always have cold sores outbreaks when on my periods and they were very terrible, when I went for test the doctor said I had herpes virus. I just want to share a brief testimony of how Dr Sikies completely cured me from herpes virus with his natural medicine. It became a burden to me having outbreaks all time and it was so terrible to look upon while on mirror than going out with it so would rather lock up myself indoors all times of outbreak. I stumbled upon a testimony of someone this Herbal doctor has cured on the internet and took the doctor's email:drsikies@gmail.com to contact him. I'm completely whole today free from this virus and horrible outbreaks All thanks to Dr Sikies!! Here is his website: https://drsikiesherbalcure.weebly.com You can quickly reach me on via mail:monetwilson702@gmail.com

I always have cold sores outbreaks when on my periods and they were very terrible, when I went for test the doctor said I had herpes virus. I just want to share a brief testimony of how Dr Sikies completely cured me from herpes virus with his natural medicine. It became a burden to me having outbreaks all time and it was so terrible to look upon while on mirror than going out with it so would rather lock up myself indoors all times of outbreak. I stumbled upon a testimony of someone this Herbal doctor has cured on the internet and took the doctor's email:drsikies@gmail.com to contact him. I'm completely whole today free from this virus and horrible outbreaks All thanks to Dr Sikies!! Here is his website: https://drsikiesherbalcure.weebly.com You can quickly reach me on via mail:monetwilson702@gmail.com

Its a great pleasure for me to write this testimony about how i got my Genital Herpes cured a month ago. i have been reading so many comments of some people who were cured from various diseases by Dr Aza but i never believed them. I was hurt and depressed so I was too curious and wanted to try DR. Aza then i contacted him through his email, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out. My experience with him was great, he healed me just as he promised. he sent me his medication and ask me to go for a medical check up after two weeks of usage. i agreed with him i took this medication and went for a check up, to my greatest surprise my result was negative, i am really happy that i am cured and healthy again. I have waited for 3weeks to be very sure i was completely healed before writing this testimony. I did another blood test one week ago and it was still Herpes negative. so i guess its time i recommend anyone going through the same way. reach him through his email address: drazaherbalcenter@gmail.com OR call, add him on Whatsapp +1(315) 795 1518 you can also visite his website at;www.drazaherbalcenter.com

Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

Hello everyone, am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr olu a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I adverse you to contact Dr on his email (drolusolutionhome@gmail.com) ) you or contact on whatsapp number +2348140654426 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i Dr olu is also specialized on obeo m breast and boobs enlargement i advise you to contact him for help

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Hello  everyone i am LAESHAUN HANSON  from Canada base in Florida , i am here to share my testimony on how Dr harry helped me enlarge my penis size from 4 inches long to 10 inches long in  erection with his herbal mixture cream,Some few months back, Life was hard for me. Having sex with my wife was aliterally impossible, because my erections were poor unlike when I was younger, I couldn’t bring myself to have sex with my wife, my sperm was watery which will flow out, it was a terrible situation back then, I had gone to many specialist, subdued myself to many drugs because honestly I needed a home and a normal life, my wife was devastated/disappointed when I confessed to her that all this might be as a result of countless sex and masturbation I engage myself with when I was younger,Now am 35 years old, I felt God was really punishing me now. I am Started going for various counseling in one of our prayer reserved County, when a woman made testimony of how her husband got out of the same situation I was in. I decided to consult the doctor that helped her husband through his website https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple     and that was it. just as he assured, within the space of 2-3 weeks. Everything became history, It was like God gave blessed me with a second chance, I found myself being Lucky For  I was present when that woman made that testimony, So am telling my own testimony that i am about to become a Dad of a child my wife is carrying and now i am 10.5 inches long in erection I have also seen others who gave testimonies in relating problems like the one I was in, especially those with 1.HIV/AIDS CURE 2.PILE 3.PENIS ENLARGEMENT CURE 4.DIABETES 1/2 5.CANCER 6.HERPES CURE 7.ALOPECIA 8.ALZHEIMER DISEASE 9.ALS 10.HPV 1,2/3 11.STROKE 12.BREAST BUMS AND ENLARGEMENT PILLS 13.HEPATITIS A B C 14.STD DISEASE ETC All are treated and healed by Dr harry.please everyone in this forum or group do not hesitate to contact him.Be free to contact him on his mail at drharrysolution@gmail.com or  website https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple   Or call him or whatsapp him on his mobile number +2349036417079 wish you the best as you contact him thanks   

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