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Biotalous 2.0 – mitä ovat tulevaisuuden biomateriaalit?

Biopohjaisista raaka-aineista valmistettuja materiaaleja eli biomateriaaleja pidetään keskeisenä ratkaisuna korvattaessa nykyisiä fossiilisiin raaka-aineisiin perustuvia tuotteita, kemikaaleja ja lukuisia muita sovelluksia. Taustalla on luonnollisesti ajatus nykyisten tuotteiden hiilijalanjäljen ja muiden ympäristövaikutusten vähentämisestä. Yleisessä keskustelussa on kuitenkin havahduttu siihen tosiasiaan, että myös biopohjaisia raaka-aineita, kansallisesti siis metsiä, on vain rajallisesti käytettävissä kasvavan biotalouden tarpeisiin. Siksi oleellinen kysymys onkin, mihin rajalliset bioraaka-ainevarannot pitäisi käyttää?

Kysymystä voi tarkastella useasta eri näkökulmasta. Kansantalouden kannalta olisi järkevää nostaa biotuotteiden jalostusarvoa, koska tuotannon volyymiä ei voi loputtomasti lisätä rajallisista raaka-aineresursseista johtuen. Nykyisin hyvin suuri osa puuvarannoistamme päätyy selluloosaksi ja edelleen jatkojalostettavaksi erityisesti Aasiaan. Siksi olisi tärkeää, että erityisesti uudet, suunnitteilla olevat biojalostamot keskittyisivät korkean jalostusasteen biotuotteisiin.

Toinen tärkeä näkökulma on biotuotteiden ilmastovaikutukset. Hallituksen asettama yleinen tavoite on, että Suomi on hiilineutraali vuoteen 2035 mennessä. Tämän tavoitteen edellytyksenä on kaksi tärkeää asiaa biotuotteisiin liittyen: metsien eli hiilinielujen määrä on säilytettävä riittävänä sekä valmistettavien biotuotteiden on oltava riittävän pitkäikäisiä. Myös näiden tavoitteiden saavuttamisessa korostuu tulevaisuuden biotuotteiden korkea jalostusarvo. Jo nykyisellä metsien käytöllä hiilitase on heilahtanut niin, että liialliset hakkuut aiheuttavat melkein liikenteeseen verrattavan ilmastovaikutuksen.

Ehkä tärkein näkökulma on kuitenkin se, osaammeko visioida tarpeeksi pitkäjänteisesti uusia biotuotteita kehitettäessä ja estää ne virheet, joita on tehty fossiilisten materiaalien kehityksessä ja käytössä. Elämme tällä hetkellä teknologisen kehityksen nousukautta, jossa korostuu digitaalisuus. Siksi tarvitaankin erityistä kaukonäköisyyttä ja hahmotuskykyä oivaltaa ne nousevat tulevaisuuden tarpeet, joihin biomateriaaleja jatkossa tarvitsemme.

On todennäköistä, että pelkät aikaisempia tuotteita korvaavat materiaalit eivät riitä kiihtyvän teknologisen kehityksen vauhdissa. Toisaalta jo nyt on nähtävissä, että joistain teknologioista tullaan luopumaan tai niiden painoarvo vähenee. Vielä muutama vuosikymmen sitten painopaperin ajateltiin olevan ylivertainen tuote tiedonvälityksessä. Tänä päivänä voi puolestaan kriittisesti kysyä, ovatko esimerkiksi biopolttoaineet tulevaisuuden kestävä ratkaisu samalla kun energiantuotanto siirtyy yhä enemmän pois polttotekniikoista.  

Mihin tulevaisuuden biomateriaaleja voisi sitten parhaiten hyödyntää? Uudet vihreät ja toiminnalliset pakkaus- ja tekstiilimateriaalit ovat kiinnostava mahdollisuus jo lähitulevaisuudessa. Mielenkiintoinen ja jatkuvasti merkitykseltään korostuva alue ovat digitaalisuuden ja elektroniikan sovellukset. Näiden sovellusten määrä kasvaa jatkuvasti samalla kun yksittäisen tuotteen elinkaari lyhenee. Vihreä elektroniikka, green electronics, onkin kasvava tutkimusalue, ja se perustuu biopohjaisten materiaalien käyttöön elektroniikan komponenteissa ja tuotteissa. Esimerkiksi nanoselluloosasta voitaisiin valmistaa näyttöjä, sensoreita ja antennimateriaaleja, joista voidaan tuotteen käytön jälkeen erotella metallit ja biomateriaali voidaan puolestaan vaikka kompostoida.  

Yksilölliset lääketieteen sovellukset, jotka perustuvat yhä enemmän nanomateriaalien hyödyntämiseen, ovat myös kiinnostava kohde tulevaisuuden biomateriaaleille. Biomateriaaleja voidaan hyödyntää kudosten kasvattamiseen, lääkeaineiden ja DNA:n kuljettamiseen elimistössä ja soluissa sekä erilaisessa diagnostiikassa. Biomateriaalien etuina ovat niiden saatavuus, edullisuus, muokattavuus ja yhteensopivuus elimistön kanssa.

Selvää on, että kaikkia tulevaisuuden biomateriaaleja ja niiden käyttökohteita on vaikea ennustaa. Pelkkä uusiutuva raaka-ainepohja ei ole kuitenkaan ratkaisu tai keskeisin myyntivaltti kehitystyössä. Tulevaisuuden biotuotteilta vaaditaan korkeaa jalostusastetta, uutta toiminnallisuutta ja niiden yhdistettävyyttä muihin kehittyviin teknologioihin. Tämä vaatii pitkäjänteisyyttä ja kaukonäköisyyttä, sekä ennen kaikkea rohkeutta biomateriaalien kehittäjiltä, rahoittajilta ja alan teollisilta toimijoilta.

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Last updated: 22.8.2019

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i am ERIC BRUNT by name. Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I have been rejected by my wife after three(3) years of marriage just because another Man had a spell on her and she left me and the kid to suffer. one day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell caster on this address AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a man had a spell on my wife and he told me that he will help me and after 3 days that i will have my wife back. i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my wife. Thanks for helping me Dr Akhere contact him on email: AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com or call/whatsapp:+2349057261346 i am ERIC BRUNT by name. Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I have been rejected by my wife after three(3) years of marriage just because another Man had a spell on her and she left me and the kid to suffer. one day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell caster on this address AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a man had a spell on my wife and he told me that he will help me and after 3 days that i will have my wife back. i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my wife. Thanks for helping me Dr Akhere contact him on email: AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com or call/whatsapp:+2349057261346

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My husband and I have been married for about 7 yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Great can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great . If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his E-mail:  infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com WhatsApp +2348118829899 website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me/

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Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I was rejected by my husband after four years of marriage just because another woman had a spell on him and he left me and the kid to suffer. one day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell caster on this address; drbenspellcaster@gmail.com, have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a woman had a spell on my husband and he told me that he will help me and after 2 days that i will have my husband back. i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster DR BEN have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband and my marriage was saved. His email drbenspellcaster@gmail.com or you can call or add him up on WHASTAPP;+2348151642717....

My life Was devastated! But All Thanks To Dr happy Who Brought Back My girlfriend after cheating on me and ask for a breakup, Alexis scorpio from FL Usa. I don't believe at first i try to get back with her but all she told me was she’s with someone else. that she is no longer interested in marrying me at that point i was heart broken coz i love my girlfriend so much that i could not let go off her all of a sudden she left me, i really love her and never can imagine my life without her. not until i came across a powerful real spell caster Dr happy who promise me 24hours urgent love spell to get back with my girlfriend, good twenty-four {24} hours. hmm-mm, it was a good night time at 11:pm within the days that Dr happy told me that my girlfriend will be back, at first i heard the bell rings getting close to my door i heard someone saying honey!!!, it sound familiar i opened the door and i saw my girlfriend standing and weeping in front of me. i was not surprised because its all i have been praying for her to come back home. Guess what 2 weeks after she noticed her system and her body temperature was changed and i took her to clinic for check up and the doctor told me that there is life in her which means she was pregnant i really wants to use this opportunity to thanks Dr happy so much and the love page that directed me to Dr happy if you have any problem getting your ex back, or predicament that is worse or exactly like this you have been into, contact Dr happy on happylovespell2@gmail.com Whatsapp/cal +2348133873774 visit his website...happylovespell2.webnode.com/ about his love spell Blogs site.http://happylovespel.blogspot.com.ng/

My life Was devastated! But All Thanks To Dr happy Who Brought Back My girlfriend after cheating on me and ask for a breakup, Alexis scorpio from FL Usa. I don't believe at first i try to get back with her but all she told me was she’s with someone else. that she is no longer interested in marrying me at that point i was heart broken coz i love my girlfriend so much that i could not let go off her all of a sudden she left me, i really love her and never can imagine my life without her. not until i came across a powerful real spell caster Dr happy who promise me 24hours urgent love spell to get back with my girlfriend, good twenty-four {24} hours. hmm-mm, it was a good night time at 11:pm within the days that Dr happy told me that my girlfriend will be back, at first i heard the bell rings getting close to my door i heard someone saying honey!!!, it sound familiar i opened the door and i saw my girlfriend standing and weeping in front of me. i was not surprised because its all i have been praying for her to come back home. Guess what 2 weeks after she noticed her system and her body temperature was changed and i took her to clinic for check up and the doctor told me that there is life in her which means she was pregnant i really wants to use this opportunity to thanks Dr happy so much and the love page that directed me to Dr happy if you have any problem getting your ex back, or predicament that is worse or exactly like this you have been into, contact Dr happy on happylovespell2@gmail.com Whatsapp/cal +2348133873774 visit his website...happylovespell2.webnode.com/ about his love spell Blogs site.http://happylovespel.blogspot.com.ng/

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HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470 This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me.... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually met this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please i want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, i advice you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tell is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470 or call. PRIEST WISDOM Blog   http://reallovespellcaster.over-blog.com

EFFECTIVE AND POWERFUL LOVE SPELL CASTER AND LOTTERY SPELL 2019 GBOJIESPIRITUALTEMPLE@GMAIL. COM OR WHATSAPP HIM :+2349066410185 Hi i am from USA I have just experience the wonders of Dr. gbojie love spell, that have been spread on the internet and worldwide, How he marvelously helped people all over the world to restored back their marriage life and get back lost lovers, and also help to win lottery. I contacted him after going through so many testimonies from different people how he help to bring back ex lover back, i told him about my husband that abandoned me about 8 months ago, and left home with all i had.. Dr GBOJIE only told me to smile and have a rest of mind he will handle all in just 24 hours, After the second day my husband called me, i was just so shocked, i pick the call and couldn't believe my ears, he was really begging me to forgive him and making promises on phone.. He came back home and also got me a new car just for him to proof his love for me. i was so happy and called Dr Gbojie and thanked him, he only told me to share the good news all over the world .. Well if you need an effective and real spell caster contact Dr gbojie Via email: gbojiespiritualtemple@gmail.com, gbojiespiritualtemple@yahoo.com or Call or WhatsApp: +2349066410185 website : http://gbojiespiritualtemple.website2.me/

I want to thank Dr Osebor for the Herbal HIV medicine he gave to me and my daughter, i was suffering from HIV when i gave birth to my daughter and that was how my daughter got the sickness indirect from me, but to God be the glory that i am heal with the herbal medicine that Dr Osebor gave to me when i emailed him. i want to use this medium to tell everyone that the solution to our sickness has come,so i will like you to contact this great healer on his email address, oseborwinbacktemple@gmail.com with him all your pains will be gone,i am really happy today that i and my daughter are cured from HIV, we are now Negative after the use of his Herb medicine, my specialist doctor confirm it. once more i say a big thank to you Dr Osebor for healing hands upon my life and my daughter, i say may God continue to bless you abundantly and give you more power to keep helping those that needs your help. email him now he is waiting to receive you. { oseborwinbacktemple@gmail.com } or call him +2348073245515 DR osebor CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:- 1. HIV/AIDS 2. HERPES 3. CANCER 4. ALS 5.cancer eye problem etc.

Good day viewers i am so happy to testify about Dr Lukas Lele, i have suffered from Herpes simplex virus for so long, after being diagnosed 10 years ago. i searched for help and i was directed to Dr Lukas Lele Spell Temple, i am forever grateful that i am cured today contact Dr Lukas Lele now Email; drlelespelltemple1@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348151729226 to cure your disease HIV AIDS, HSV 1&2, HEPATITIS B, WARTS, CANCER, SKIN INFECTION, DIABETES. And many more. Whatsapp +2348151729226. http://drlelespelltemple.bravesites.com/photo-dr-lukas-lele

Thanks for the bog

HELLO EVERYONE OUT HERE ON THIS FORUM I WANT TO SHARE WITH YOU ALL ON HOW I GOT MY EX HUSBAND BACK THROUGH THE HELP OF DR SAMUEL SPELL HEALER. Greetings to everyone that is reading this testimony today. My name is Celine from Poland I have been rejected by my husband after 4 years of marriage just because of another woman he left me and the kid in pain. I never wanted to discuss the problem am passing through with anyone but one day I told a friend of mine all I am passing through she introduced me to a great man called Dr Samuel spell healer and I never believed in her because I never believed in spell I met another friend of mine he also introduced me to the same man called Dr Samuel spell healer and still I doubted not until Oneday when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell healer on this address dr.samuelspellhealer@gmail.com have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a woman had a spell on my husband and he told me that he will help me and after 2 days that i will have my husband back. I believed him because I have seen so many evidence of him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell healer has brought back my marriage and family to the best happiness in life. I want to inform everyone with any similar issues should not hesitate to reach out to Dr Samuel spell healer. His email: dr.samuelspellhealer@gmail.com Text/Call him on +2348116961468 or text @drsamuelspellhealer all thanks to Dr Samuel spell healer for what he has done for me and my family.

HELLO EVERYONE OUT HERE ON THIS FORUM I WANT TO SHARE WITH YOU ALL ON HOW I GOT MY EX HUSBAND BACK THROUGH THE HELP OF DR SAMUEL SPELL HEALER. Greetings to everyone that is reading this testimony today. My name is Celine from Poland I have been rejected by my husband after 4 years of marriage just because of another woman he left me and the kid in pain. I never wanted to discuss the problem am passing through with anyone but one day I told a friend of mine all I am passing through she introduced me to a great man called Dr Samuel spell healer and I never believed in her because I never believed in spell I met another friend of mine he also introduced me to the same man called Dr Samuel spell healer and still I doubted not until Oneday when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell healer on this address dr.samuelspellhealer@gmail.com have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a woman had a spell on my husband and he told me that he will help me and after 2 days that i will have my husband back. I believed him because I have seen so many evidence of him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell healer has brought back my marriage and family to the best happiness in life. I want to inform everyone with any similar issues should not hesitate to reach out to Dr Samuel spell healer. His email: dr.samuelspellhealer@gmail.com Text/Call him on +2348116961468 or text @drsamuelspellhealer all thanks to Dr Samuel spell healer for what he has done for me and my family........

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK HOME WITH THE HELP OF A REAL AND GENUINE SPELL CASTER DR IKHILE TEXT OR CONTACT VIA WHATSAPP +27789518085 My name is TAYLOR am from united state, I almost took my life because of my husband who left me and stop picking my calls answering my mails and my messages. He said He do not trust me anymore, I tried to convince and beg him, but he will not believe or answer me until we had a fight and broke up for 6months, after then I realize I can not live without him because of the love I have for him. I tried everything possible to get him back, but non worked for me, some fake spell casters scammed me and went away with my money until I came across this man called Dr Ikhile he helped me cast a spell and behold my husband came back after 48 hours, begging me for forgiveness, I was so surprised that spell caster like Dr Ikhile still exist. If anyone here needs some help, with all sincerity, contact Dr Ikhile today Website:http://solutiontemples.com Email solutiontemple27@gmail.com or Contact him via is whatsapp number +27789518085 indeed you are a priest thank you for making my home a happy home again.i can never stop talking about you sir. DR Ikhile is really a great man you can contact in any solution for any kind of problems like (1) lottery spell (2) ex back (3) get pregnant (4) cure for any kind of sickness,disease and infection And many others contact this great man today and get your Problems solved 100%. Website:http://solutiontemples.com Email solutiontemple27@gmail.com Call & Whatsapp +27789518085

HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470 This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me.... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually met this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please i want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, i advice you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tell is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470 or call. PRIEST WISDOM Blog   http://reallovespellcaster.over-blog.com ..........

Hello everyone my name is Joan from USA, i never ever believed in spell until i meet a man called Dr.Ogudugu, who helped me cast a spell that brought back my ex-lover to me within 48 hours. Dr.Ogudugu spells works beyond my imaginations and today i am happily married me and my ex-lover are now husband and wife. What more can i say rather than to say thank you Dr.Ogudugu for been there for me,contact Dr.Ogudugu today and your life will never ever remain the same. YOU CAN CONTACT Dr.Ogudugu VIA EMAIL: greatogudugu@gmail.com OR CALL HIM ON +27663492930 NAME: JOAN COUNTRY: USA

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