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Biotalous 2.0 – mitä ovat tulevaisuuden biomateriaalit?

Biopohjaisista raaka-aineista valmistettuja materiaaleja eli biomateriaaleja pidetään keskeisenä ratkaisuna korvattaessa nykyisiä fossiilisiin raaka-aineisiin perustuvia tuotteita, kemikaaleja ja lukuisia muita sovelluksia. Taustalla on luonnollisesti ajatus nykyisten tuotteiden hiilijalanjäljen ja muiden ympäristövaikutusten vähentämisestä. Yleisessä keskustelussa on kuitenkin havahduttu siihen tosiasiaan, että myös biopohjaisia raaka-aineita, kansallisesti siis metsiä, on vain rajallisesti käytettävissä kasvavan biotalouden tarpeisiin. Siksi oleellinen kysymys onkin, mihin rajalliset bioraaka-ainevarannot pitäisi käyttää?

Kysymystä voi tarkastella useasta eri näkökulmasta. Kansantalouden kannalta olisi järkevää nostaa biotuotteiden jalostusarvoa, koska tuotannon volyymiä ei voi loputtomasti lisätä rajallisista raaka-aineresursseista johtuen. Nykyisin hyvin suuri osa puuvarannoistamme päätyy selluloosaksi ja edelleen jatkojalostettavaksi erityisesti Aasiaan. Siksi olisi tärkeää, että erityisesti uudet, suunnitteilla olevat biojalostamot keskittyisivät korkean jalostusasteen biotuotteisiin.

Toinen tärkeä näkökulma on biotuotteiden ilmastovaikutukset. Hallituksen asettama yleinen tavoite on, että Suomi on hiilineutraali vuoteen 2035 mennessä. Tämän tavoitteen edellytyksenä on kaksi tärkeää asiaa biotuotteisiin liittyen: metsien eli hiilinielujen määrä on säilytettävä riittävänä sekä valmistettavien biotuotteiden on oltava riittävän pitkäikäisiä. Myös näiden tavoitteiden saavuttamisessa korostuu tulevaisuuden biotuotteiden korkea jalostusarvo. Jo nykyisellä metsien käytöllä hiilitase on heilahtanut niin, että liialliset hakkuut aiheuttavat melkein liikenteeseen verrattavan ilmastovaikutuksen.

Ehkä tärkein näkökulma on kuitenkin se, osaammeko visioida tarpeeksi pitkäjänteisesti uusia biotuotteita kehitettäessä ja estää ne virheet, joita on tehty fossiilisten materiaalien kehityksessä ja käytössä. Elämme tällä hetkellä teknologisen kehityksen nousukautta, jossa korostuu digitaalisuus. Siksi tarvitaankin erityistä kaukonäköisyyttä ja hahmotuskykyä oivaltaa ne nousevat tulevaisuuden tarpeet, joihin biomateriaaleja jatkossa tarvitsemme.

On todennäköistä, että pelkät aikaisempia tuotteita korvaavat materiaalit eivät riitä kiihtyvän teknologisen kehityksen vauhdissa. Toisaalta jo nyt on nähtävissä, että joistain teknologioista tullaan luopumaan tai niiden painoarvo vähenee. Vielä muutama vuosikymmen sitten painopaperin ajateltiin olevan ylivertainen tuote tiedonvälityksessä. Tänä päivänä voi puolestaan kriittisesti kysyä, ovatko esimerkiksi biopolttoaineet tulevaisuuden kestävä ratkaisu samalla kun energiantuotanto siirtyy yhä enemmän pois polttotekniikoista.  

Mihin tulevaisuuden biomateriaaleja voisi sitten parhaiten hyödyntää? Uudet vihreät ja toiminnalliset pakkaus- ja tekstiilimateriaalit ovat kiinnostava mahdollisuus jo lähitulevaisuudessa. Mielenkiintoinen ja jatkuvasti merkitykseltään korostuva alue ovat digitaalisuuden ja elektroniikan sovellukset. Näiden sovellusten määrä kasvaa jatkuvasti samalla kun yksittäisen tuotteen elinkaari lyhenee. Vihreä elektroniikka, green electronics, onkin kasvava tutkimusalue, ja se perustuu biopohjaisten materiaalien käyttöön elektroniikan komponenteissa ja tuotteissa. Esimerkiksi nanoselluloosasta voitaisiin valmistaa näyttöjä, sensoreita ja antennimateriaaleja, joista voidaan tuotteen käytön jälkeen erotella metallit ja biomateriaali voidaan puolestaan vaikka kompostoida.  

Yksilölliset lääketieteen sovellukset, jotka perustuvat yhä enemmän nanomateriaalien hyödyntämiseen, ovat myös kiinnostava kohde tulevaisuuden biomateriaaleille. Biomateriaaleja voidaan hyödyntää kudosten kasvattamiseen, lääkeaineiden ja DNA:n kuljettamiseen elimistössä ja soluissa sekä erilaisessa diagnostiikassa. Biomateriaalien etuina ovat niiden saatavuus, edullisuus, muokattavuus ja yhteensopivuus elimistön kanssa.

Selvää on, että kaikkia tulevaisuuden biomateriaaleja ja niiden käyttökohteita on vaikea ennustaa. Pelkkä uusiutuva raaka-ainepohja ei ole kuitenkaan ratkaisu tai keskeisin myyntivaltti kehitystyössä. Tulevaisuuden biotuotteilta vaaditaan korkeaa jalostusastetta, uutta toiminnallisuutta ja niiden yhdistettävyyttä muihin kehittyviin teknologioihin. Tämä vaatii pitkäjänteisyyttä ja kaukonäköisyyttä, sekä ennen kaikkea rohkeutta biomateriaalien kehittäjiltä, rahoittajilta ja alan teollisilta toimijoilta.

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Last updated: 22.8.2019

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