Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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Hello everyone my name is Sophie,i am from Canada I feel very happy to share my great and wonderful testimony with everyone on this platform..: I was married for 4 years to my husband and all of a sudden another woman came into the picture he started hating me and he was abusive and all because i never bear him a child. but i still loved him with all my heart and wanted him at all cost.... He filed for divorce and my whole life was turning apart and i didn't know what to do, he moved out of the house and abandoned me all alone,one day a very close friend of mine told me about trying spiritual means to get my husband back,so i went online to search and i came across so many spell caster who only wasted my time and took a lot of money from me,but i went back to her and told her that spiritual way has only taking my money and not yielding anything, and she  introduced me to a spell caster,drgurulovespelltemple@yahoo.com, so i decided to try it. although i didn't believe in all those things because of what i have gone through lately,i contacted the Doctor and explain all my problems to him and he told me that i shouldn't worry that when he cast the spell on me and my husband that my husband is going to run back to me and that within 3weeks am going to get pregnant,so i did the little he ask me to do and behold it all work out,my husband run back to me and right now we have Twins boy and a girl,so all thanks to Dr Guru you're indeed a great spell caster, in case anyone needs help here is his email address; drgurulovespelltemple@yahoo.com His spells is for a better life OR whatsapp him now +2349023365076

Dr TAKUTA brought back my ex within 48 hours with a powerful lovespell. He is reliable and trusted contact TAKUTA for marriage lovespell on email: takutaspellalter @ gmail . com or whatsap on +27788634102

Am Lizzy Dixon from Canada, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Chief He helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my husband who left me, When i contacted Chief he cast a love spell for me, and my husband who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. he is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken relationship back. because i am now happy with my husband. To anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, Chief can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his email chiefdrlucky@gmail.com call or add him on whats-app with his phone number +2348132777335 Website: http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/   

I want to thank Dr Emu a very powerful spell caster who help me to bring my husband back to me, few month ago i have a serious problem with my husband, to the extend that he left the house, and he started dating another woman and he stayed with the woman, i tried all i can to bring him back, but all my effort was useless until the day my friend came to my house and i told her every thing that had happened between me and my husband, then she told me of a powerful spell caster who help her when she was in the same problem I then contact Dr Emu and told him every thing and he told me not to worry my self again that my husband will come back to me after he has cast a spell on him, i thought it was a joke, after he had finish casting the spell, he told me that he had just finish casting the spell, to my greatest surprise within 48 hours, my husband really came back begging me to forgive him, if you need his help you can contact him with via email: Emutemple@gmail.com or add him up on his whatsapp +2347012841542 is willing to help any body that need his help. Website: http://emutemple.website2.me/

An hacker helped me to spy on my wife’s WhatsApp,mails and every text message that was sent to her iPhone and every deleted messages of the past six months you can message him through this number (+13852501115) or contact him via email at brillianthackers800@gmail.com

before my husband came back to me after 3 months of separation, i have cried a lot and my life was miserable, things were not good in my sight I could not concentrate, all what i was thinking is if i could get my husband back, this thinking of getting him back, make's me look for solutions everywhere, even on the Internet after searching for solutions online, one faithful day i saw Dr. Solutions Spell Temple contact, which i contacted and told them my problems they asked of My details, which I summit, after some hours I received a message that your spell casting is free, but I will be responsible for the items needed for the spell, after the items were bought and received by the spell caster, within 7 hours he message me on whatsapp that he has cast the spell and asked me to wait for 48 hours. luckily i haven't change my mobile number,but i was thinking my husband has deleted the number he could use to reach me,i deleted his number from my phone,the disputes we had that lead to the separation was ghastly, i never thought we could be together again, if not the help of this great spell caster,one day i saw a message on my phone when i woke up it was early in the morning the message contained an apologies, that i should forgive him for everything he has done to me to me i don't know who sent such message because the number look strange to me so i call the sender back and behold the person's voice i heard was the voice of my husband i was angry at first because i don't want him to know that i missed him after he apologize and said he promised to be a better man this time and also said he will never let me cry i never believe him,since he came back i noticed something that my husband has change a lot he is now the dream husband i always dream off, i just want to thank god and the genuine spell caster he connected me with, right now i can say that all my problems are over smile has always be on my face i can't thank you enough sir,That was how I got the love of my life back we are both happy together thanks to Dr Solutions God bless you,for relationship advise reach the spell caster for assistant Via, landofsolutions@outlook.com https://spelltobringbacklovepartnerback.webs.com

How to have your husband back home with your kids again I'm a lady with 2 kids i am from Houston Texa, my husband leave me and his 2 kids for about 10 months i go through a lot of pain i do all i could to make him returned to me and to his kids but nothing works out. it was really a stressful period to me because i could dint go through the heartbreak. i was told to get a love spell doctor contacted to help me out which i did i was lucky to get DR.PEPOKO Contact who was able to help me out, he cast up a love spell that brought back my husband to me and to his kids thanks so much DR. PEPOKO I really appreciate what you have done for me. here he his contact if you may required for it by solving your relationship email. Pepokospiritemple@gmail.com call whatssap +2348156148821 Here is also Dr. PEPOKO website you can visit it yourself www.pepokospiritemple.blogspot.com

How I Got My Ex Husband Back..Am so excited to share my testimony of a real spell caster who brought my husband back to me. My husband and I have been married for about 6 years now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone else. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr  Aluya   can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and and told him my problems and he told me what to do and i did it and he did a spell for me. 48 hours later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr  Aluya Powerful Love Spell that really works. If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you. He will not disappoint you. Email him at:  aluya.48hoursspelltemple@gmail.com  or whatsapp him on:  +2348110493039      you can also go through his website   draluya48hoursspelltemple.webs.com/

Hi viewers, I'm posting this Because i found lots of people having marriage and relationship and divorce problems, which I also experienced. I recently found help from a man called Dr. Oselumen he did a great job that made my husband fell back in love with me after ten months of separation. I want y' all to know there are fake online spell Dr.s if someone out there needs help, can easily contact droselumen@gmail.com or reach him on whatsapp +2348054265852 he will give you the best result.

I was having Herpes Simplex Virus then i came across a review of people saying that they got treated from Herpes Simplex Virus by Dr Voke., So i gave a try by contacting him through his email and explain my problem to him. He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after two weeks the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken by any deadly diseases like HERPES HIV, shingles,low sperm count or bringing back your ex lover, this great man is extremely the best in which I have seen and applauds and if you also need a help, you can also email him via email (doctorvoke@gmail.com)

Good day friends. The truth is that GREAT MOTHER IS REAL AND UNIQUELY POWERFUL. Contact the Great Mother today and she will help you. when my husband left me for another woman, i thought that was the end but i contacted many spell casters but there was no positive responses and everything seemed not to be working and i was losing my mind until my cousin told me about the GREAT MOTHER who also helped her to bring back her man and also helped her to cure her herpes disease. I gave it a try and i contacted the Great Mother on her Website and i saw various testimonies about her on her good works how she has helped a lot of people. I explained my problems to her. she laughed and told me that, everything will be okay again and that she will help me bring back my man in 3 days time. I actually thought that it was a joke but since i had no other options, i gave it a try and i did what she instructed me do and to my greatest surprise, my man came back to me begging in 3 days time just as she told me. Contact the Great Mother now on her website:   https://Ourgreatmother1.blogspot.com   and you can also reach her on her email: Greatmotherofsolutiontemple1@gmail.com  or you can equally contact her on her whatsapp number: +17025514367

HOW I GOT MY EX HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR Ilekhojie .......My name is Muna Vassel, from Canada, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real and effective online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr Ilekhojie , he helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my husband who left me, When i contacted Dr Ilekhojie, he cast a love spell for me, and my husband who said he doesn't have anything to do with me again, called me and started begging me to come back. he is back now with so much love and care. Today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken relationship and bring them back. because i am now very happy with my husband. To everyone who is reading this article and needs his help, Dr Ilekhojie can also offer any type of help like, resolving Divorce Cases, Court Cases, Death Spell, Spiritual protection. Thank you! contact email: gethelp05@gmail.com or call  +2348147400259

Are you having issues in your relationship, or finding it difficult to have a child of your own or are you the type having any diseases in your body. I will advice you to contact Dr. Abolo of Abolospell@gmail.com . The potency of his spell is so effective and can reunite broken relationship and can also make one get pregnant know matter the situation and not only that, he also has the power to cure all type of diseases within the period of 48hours.. Contact him today and thank me later. Contact details : Abolospell@gmail.com

Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr voodoo cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr voodoo the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his whatsApp number at +2348140120719 or email: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr voodoo that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via : voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com?. or WHATSAPP +2348140120719

Are you looking for a way to restore back your broken relationship? If yes help has come your way i got a testimony online about Dr.Nana how he helped someone to get back his ex wife and i contacted him for help also, I am so happy that right now my husband is back to me with so much love and happiness with the help of Dr.Nana if you need help in getting your ex or to fix your relationship back, you can contact him he will help you just the same way he helped me brought back my husband after 1 year of separation contact him today and be happy in your relationship you can email him on nanakwakuspiritualist@gmail.com Call or WhatsApp +2349029905501 webpage https://lovespellsite.blogspot.com/

Are you looking for a way to restore back your broken relationship? If yes help has come your way i got a testimony online about Dr.Nana how he helped someone to get back his ex wife and i contacted him for help also, I am so happy that right now my husband is back to me with so much love and happiness with the help of Dr.Nana if you need help in getting your ex or to fix your relationship back, you can contact him he will help you just the same way he helped me brought back my husband after 1 year of separation contact him today and be happy in your relationship you can email him on nanakwakuspiritualist@gmail.com Call or WhatsApp +2349029905501 webpage https://lovespellsite.blogspot.com/

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