Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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Powerful Love Spell- Get Your Ex Wife/Husband Back Urgently.., I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, his name is Hamisi he helped me recently to reunite my Marriage back with my wife who left me, When i contacted Hamisi he cast an urgent love spell for me, and my wife who said she doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. she is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken marriage/relationship back. because i am now happy with my wife. to anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, hamisi can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, urgent love spell,Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his for more info, whatsapp/call...+27783477646

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My husband and I have been married for about 7 yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore. Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that DR OGBAMIKHUMI can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to DR OGBAMIKHUMI . If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his  nubmer ;+2348079027993 Email him at greatsolutionhome12@gmail.com He can also render help on the following1. HEPATITIS A,B,C 2. HERPES 1/2 3.DIABETES 4.STROKE. 5.HIV/AIDS HERBAL CURE, STDS and STI 6. MARRIAGE COUNSELLING 7.LOVE SPELL CASTING 8.JOB PROMOTION SPELLS 9.MARITAL PROBLEM 10.MAGIC MONEY SPELLS   11. lotto spell 12. promotion spell 13. protection spell 

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Sveiki visi, laba diena, noriu tiesiog pasidalyti apžvalga apie tai, kas nutiko man ir mano dėdei praėjusį mėnesį. kai pamaniau, kad visa tai mačiau, bet daktaras Sambo leido man žinoti, kad gyvenime yra daugiau. Aš turėjau paprasčiausią herpes virusą HSV2, o mano dėdė buvo patikrintas ŽIV. daug laiko praleidome stengdamiesi išsigydyti, kol susisiekiau su gydytoju Sambo dėl pagalbos. vos per 21 dieną jo augalinis vaistas išgydė mane ir mano dėdę, jis vis dar neįtikėtinas man ir kitam mano šeimos nariui. tai stebuklas. Aš nežinau, kaip dar galiu įvertinti dr. Sambo už jo darbus, išskyrus pasidalinti savo apžvalga, kad kiti galėtų pamatyti. El. paštas: (divinespellhome@gmail.com) Dr Sambo WhatsApp jam dabar +2348145810121. Taip pat galite apsilankyti jo svetainėje http: //DrSambo443.website2.me Dievas laimina gydytoją Sambo už jo gerą darbą ...

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I want to quickly drop this vital information here for those who are infected with Herpes, being infected with herpes its not the end as there its cure to it with natural root and herbs. I was also infected with herpes couple months ago i felt it was the end for me, my thought change immediately and i did research for the cure to the virus till i found about Dr Obela Herbal Medicine which help to eradicate the virus totally from my system. If you wish to find a cure to your herpes virus or other kinds of disease do not hesitate

Hello i am from USA, i want to testify on what the great doctor obela did for me, i have been suffering of herpes virus for three years, i was scared of death so i decided to look for a solution to it and i meant this doctor and i have heard that there are so many scammers out there claiming that they can heal someone from any disease, so when i meant this doctor i never trusted him, but decided to give him a try and so lucky for me he cured my herpes virus, that why i decided to share this testimony, thank you sir for curing me of that deadly diseases, you can reach the great doctor with this information Whatsapp +2348120189503 or message him though his E-mail: drobelaspellhome@gmail.com ..... THANKS

Can't still believe that i got cured from Genital Herpes through herbal treatment from Dr maggi who I met through the internet, I actually couldn't believe it at first because it sounded impossible to me knowing how far I have gone just to get rid of it. Dr maggi send me his medicine which I took as instructed and here I am living a happy life once again, a big thanks to Dr maggi, I am sure there are many herbal doctors out there but Dr maggi did it for me, contact him @gmail.com , also call him on +1(917) 979-6387

I want to use this medium to testify of how i got back my ex husband after divorce, i and my husband have been married for 8 years with 2 kids, we have been a happy family. Last year his behavior towards me and the kids changed, i suspected he was meeting another woman outside out marriage, any time i confronted him, he threatened to divorce me, i did all i could to make hings right but all to no avail until i saw a post on a "love and relationship forum" about a spell caster who helps people to cast spell on marriage and relationship issues, when i contacted this spell caster via email, he helped me cast a re-union spell and my husband changed and came apologizing to me and the kids. Contact this great spell caster for your relationship or marriage issues via this email: chiefdrlucky@gmail.com or Whats App him on +2348132777335 Website : http://chiefdrluckysolutionhome.website2.me/ Good luck  

MY HIV HEALING TESTIMONY My mouth is short of words, i am so happy because Dr voodoo has healed me from HIV which i have been suffering from the past 5years now, i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, i have tried all means in life to always i can become HIV negative one day, but there was no answer until i found Dr voodoo the parish of African who provide me some healing herbs that i uses , now i am glad telling everyone that i am now HIV Negative, i am very happy, thank you Dr voodoo for helping my life comes back newly without any form of crisis, may the good lord that i serve blessed you Dr voodoo and equip you to the higher grade for healing my life. i am so amazed. so i will announced to everyone in this whole world that is HIV positive to please follow my advice and get healed on time, because we all knows that HIV disease is a deadly type,contact Dr voodoo for your HIV healing herbs today at: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com He will be always happy to assist you online and ensure you get healed on time, contact Dr voodoo today for your healing hearbs immediately, you can also add him on whatsApp +2348140120719 thank you sir.

Its a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV1/2) for good four (4) years, six (6) months and twelve (12) day with my calculations, before I meet the great Dr. Emmanuel. I am Tina Richard from Fresno California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus.Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatment but no improvement. I meet Dr.Emmanuel online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life. I contacted Dr.Emmanuel WhatsApp  +2348140073965 or E-mail: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com  

Joy and happiness is all i see around ever since i came in contact with this great man. i complained bitterly to him about me having herpes only for him to tell me it’s a minor stuff. He told me he has cured thousands of people but i did not believe until he sent me the herbal medicine and i took it as instructed by this great man, only to go to the hospital after two weeks for another test and i was confirmed negative. For the first time in four years i was getting that result. i want to use this medium to thank this great man. His name is Dr aziegbe, i came in contact with his email through a friend in UK and ever since then my live has been full with laughter and great peace of mind. i urge you all with herpes or HSV to contact him if you willing to give him a chance. you can contact him through this email DRAZIEGBE1SPELLHOME@GMAIL .COM or you can also WhatsApp him +2349035465208 He also cured my friend with HIV and ever since then i strongly believe he can do all things. Don't be deceived thinking he does not work, i believe if you can get in contact with this man all your troubles will be over. i have done my part in spreading the good news. Contact him through his email and you will be the next to testify of his great work.

I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for hs great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have There Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguspellcaster@gmail.com Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you .....

I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 3 year now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to me in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor  Dr ALONGE who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr ALONGE via his email :therealalonge@gmail.com write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr ALONGE instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr ALONGE to get ride of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number :+2347045719820 

Hello I'm tina by name, I'm giving a testimony about Dr.Emmanuel the great Herbalist, he has the cure to all manner of diseases, he cured my herpes disease, though I went through different website I saw different testimonies about different spell casters and herbalist, I was like: 'Many people have the herpes cure why are people still suffering from it?' I though of it, then I contact Dr. Emmanuel via email, I didn't believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try, he replied my mail and Needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared it (CURE) and sent it to Airfreight Online Courier Service for delivery, he gave my details to the Courier Office, they told me that 3-5 days I will receive the package and i took the medicine as prescribed by him and I went for check-up 2 weeks after finishing the medicine, I was tested herpes negative, if you are herpes positive do me a favor for you to contact him and I will try my possible best to make sure you get cured, when you contact him, make sure you tell him that I referenced you.. contact him via: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2348140073965

This herbal practitioner cured me from Genital herpes and shingles, this i had suffered from for the past 2 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine he sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 14 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested Genital Herpes NEGATIVE. I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called [[ Robinsonbucler ]]@gmail. com, because I got to know him through a friend he cured from too. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact him also for Erectile Dysfunction, He cured my Husband from Erectile Dysfunction, https://robinbuckler.com/ ✍️✍️✍️✍️

hello everyone,my name is veronica gomez,im from united state texas,im 59 years old,I want to sincerely appreciate Mr RICHARD COSMOS who helped me with an already Program hacked ATM CARD and i was so poor without funds that i got frustrated. One morning as i was browsing on the internet, i saw different comments,said the card can witdraw $5000 per day and $50,000.in a week. people testifying of how Mr RICHARD COSMOS helped them from being poor to being rich through this already hacked ATM CARD. I was skeptical if this was true, i decided to contact one of the people giving this testimony to see proof before i contact this hacker and they proved to me beyond all doubts that it was really for real so i urgently contacted his (ultimatehackersworlds@gmail.com )and i got my already hacked atm card after i paid form the dilivery fee, if you are afraid that he is a scam, you can message me and ask me how i get the card my email:(vg2737277veronica@gmail.com) If you also want this BLANK ATM CARD i want you to contact the Hacker's on they email address;{ultimatehackersworlds@gmail.com},

Greatest thanks to Dr Oyagu for his herbal drugs that he prepared for me and when i start using it in just 2weeks i was completely cured and that ended my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE i am so happy and grateful to Dr Oyagu . after reading about him on a testimony of Jason Cash on a blogger. i knew suddenly Dr Oyagu was the right Doctor to cure my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE. i discuss with Dr Oyagu and he prepared a herbal medicine for me and when it got sent to me in south korean . i used the herbal medicine and 2weeks and i went to check up again. after 15years of suffering from HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 at last i am smiling once again. Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from your suffering. contact his WhatsApp line: +2348101755322 or his Email:Oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor ehiaguna who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 week with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc ehiaguna email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348105257464... And He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV,Infections,ulcer ETC

Investing online has been a main source of income,that's why knowledge plays a very important role in humanity,you don't need to over work yourself for money.All you need is the right information,and you could build your own wealth from the comfort of your home!Binary trading is dependent on timely signals,assets or controlled strategies which when mastered increases chance of winning up to 90%-100% with trading. It’s possible to earn $10,000 to $20,000 trading weekly-monthly,just file a complaint with  Robert,I had almost given up on everything about binary trading and ever getting my lost funds back,till i met with him,with his help now i have my lost funds back to my bank account and I can now trade successfully with his profitable strategies and software!! Email: Robertseaman939@gmail.com or Fb.me/investandmakemoney1 or  whatsApp: +44 7466 770724

Am testifying of the miraculous work of a great traditional doctor called  Dr Maggi. I have been suffering from herpes since last 2 years with my Husband but today I am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine made by  Dr Maggi   the great healer, I was browsing the Internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how  Dr Maggi cure her from Herpes Disease. I quickly contacted him to get the cure and today i am now free from the Virus,drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com you can also call him on +1(917) 979-6387

I'm so exited to share my testimonies about the Good Work of Dr. Udebhu who get me cured from herpes simplex virus (HSV1&2) with his herbs, I never thought that I will live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from herpes, I had spent a lot of money going from one Hospital to another looking for way to get rid of this disease, the hospital have been my home everyday residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching  through the internet, I saw a testimony on how Dr.Udebhu helped someone in curing his herpes disease using his healing  Herbs, quickly I copied his email just to give him a test I spoke to him, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, after i receive his herbs and i take it as instructed i was cure permanently from herpes my herpes disease was gone. so I decided to share my testimony, that nothing is impossible with God, God use a man to healed me. No matter what you are passing through, no matter how deadly the sickness is and no matter what the situation is God that did mine is still going to do yours, people suffering from herpes, brain tumor, kidney disease, pcos, AIDS, ALS,copd, asthma, athritis,herpes, Cancer,Hpv, any kind of disease, you can rich him now via ? Gmail address: drudebhuherbalhome@gmail.com or whatsapp +2349051254152  

MY HIV HEALING TESTIMONY My mouth is short of words, i am so happy because Dr voodoo has healed me from HIV ailment which i have been suffering from the past 5years now, i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, i have tried all means in life to always i can become HIV negative one day, but there was no answer until i found Dr voodoo the parish of African who provide me some healing spell that he uses to help me, now i am glad telling everyone that i am now HIV Negative, i am very happy, thank you Dr voodoo for helping my life comes back newly without any form of crisis, may the good lord that i serve blessed you Dr voodoo and equip you to the higher grade for healing my life. i am so amazed. so i will announced to everyone in this whole world that is HIV positive to please follow my advice and get healed on time, because we all knows that HIV disease is a deadly type,contact Dr voodoo for your HIV healing spell today at: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com Contact Dr. VOODOO on: /WhatsApp no:or call him +2348140120719 OR email him at: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com He will be always happy to assist you online and ensure you get healed on time, contact Dr voodoo today for your healing spell immediately, thank you sir.

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