Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I’m so happy to testify of the good work of Dr patrick I Suffer from Herpes virus since 2007 and i had frequent symptoms in my private area, after some time it will go away after using acyclovir drugs, then come back after some months. it was disheartening since i have been diagnosed, but after finding Dr patrick and his reviews i was convinced that he will definitely cure me and so i contacted and he told me how to get his medicine and using it for just 14 days and i will go and check up and first i said how can that be possible but i used his herbal medicine after making purchase and truly i used it and went for the test again, and my result came back negative. so i made it a task to share this good testimony in the internet so that those sick can benefit and get cured. What app or call: 2348055367947 Or Email:dr patrickherbalhome@gmail.com  

I was cured of HIV with the used of natural herbs. My name is celina jolly and am from US. I love herbs so much. Most times, injection and drugs are just a waste of time. I was cured 8months ago, i suffered from HIV for 13yrs but with the help of Dr. voodoo herbal medicine, i was cured within few weeks of drinking the herbs he sent to me through courier delivery service. This same doctor also cured my Aunty from herpes, as soon as i heard she had herpes, i quickly refer her to Dr. voodoo and she was cured too after drinking his herbs.I have referred more than 15 persons to Dr. voodoo and they were all cured from their various illness. Have you taken herbs before?. You have spent so much money on drugs,injections,surgeries etc and yet you have no good result to show for it. Contact Dr. voodoo now, he is a herbalist doctor, i assured you of a cure if you drink his natural herbs. Dr. voodoo have herbs that cures HIV, Herpes, diabetics, asthma, hepatitis, HBP, STD, cancer, chronic, etc. Contact Dr voodoo through his Email address on: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com or WHATSAP/CALL him on +2348140120719 Please share the good news to other people once you are cured

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How can i ever stop saying thanks to Dr.Aze for his herbal product he render to me and today my sexual life is healthy and balance am living up to my wife expectation. For the past 11 years i have been struggling with with my penis issue, weak erection and premature ejaculation. I have spent money on it but no cure until i took this product from Dr.Aze just within few weeks i got 10 inches penis size, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 10 inches or more you can contact Dr.Aze for his products on his email: (dr.azesolutionhome@gmail.com). you can/whats-app number +2349056991272. All thanks to Dr.Aze once again.

Having Herpes is a Terrible Experience and my Experience will help some hsv patients beware of Herbs from online doc.I was positive to the deadly virus called HERPES and i lost hope because i was out casted and rejected even by my closet friends.i searched on-line to know and enquirer about cure for HERPES and i read someone testimony on how he was cured from HSV-2 so i decided to contactthe same herbalist Call Dr uche because i know that nature has the power to heal everything.i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worrythat he will help me with the natural herbs from God!after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via UPS SPEED POST and it got to me after 3 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i wascured! its really like a dream but i am so happy!that the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more can be saved just like me!and if you need his help, you can email him for help with the following diseases HIV/AIDS, COPD, CANCER, HPV WARTS on:: drucheherbalmedicine@gmail.com whatsapp +2348050777527

Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I had been rejected by my husband after five(5) years of marriage just because another woman had cast a spell on him and he left me with 2 kids to suffer. One day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how he help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a chance he told me that my husband is under spell, he said that he will help me and after 7 days that i will have my husband back. i believed he and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster has the power to bring lovers back now my husband is back with after 7 days . he also gave me a financial magic ring to boost my business and removed bad luck. i am now happy with my husband. Thanks you Dr. love please contact him at (lovespelldoctor0@gmail.com)

I am here again to say a big thank to Professor Oseamuyi who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how Professor Oseamuyi has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..professoroseamuyi@yahoo.com/whatsapp number +2348078665168

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I never thought i would be HIV negative again after been diagnosed in 2017, i have tried everything possible in life from one doctor to another, one hospital to another, series of tests, different kinds of medication, i had already lost hope until i meet Great Dr. OSAGIE online testimonies, a specialist in herbal medication from Africa, i contacted him (drosagiesolutiontemple@gmail.com OR DROSAGIESOULTIONTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM) and he prepared HIV herbal medication for me which i took for 7days and now i am completely cured. i want to use this medium to express my gratitude to him for saving my life and curing me from HIV, for taking away all my pains and sorrows, I''m indeed grateful and i am so happy I''m now HIV negative. i will continue to tell the good news of your great works to everyone, if you have HIV or other disease contact him, Email: his email: (drosagiesolutiontemple@gmail.com OR DROSAGIESOULTIONTEMPLE@YAHOO.COM ) or Whatsapp number: +2347030465649 DOCTOR OSAGIE CAN AS WELL HELP THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS 1. HIV/AIDS SPELL 2. HERPES CURE OF KIND 3. CANCER SPELL 4 IF YOU WANT YOUR EX LOVER BACK SPELL 5 IF YOU NEED A BABY SPELL him to solve 6 LOW SPERM COUNT SPELL get all your problem solve. No problem is too big for him to solve.

I will start by saying to all that have COPD or Emphysema should please stop here and read up my story, So as you will know how to get your CURE. I had Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) for 15 years, My first symptoms were dry cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. My first chest x-ray only showed bronchitis. Finally I went to a pulmonologist and was diagnosed with COPD, Am writing this article to appreciate the good work of General Herbal Center, that helped me get read of myCOPD/Emphysema that i have had for about 17years now, with no cure. After seeing a post of a Zom Sanchez from US on the Internet teying of how she was cured by Native Herbal Clinic prescribed remstifedies . I also decided to contact then for a cure and i purchased the medicine , because all i wanted was for me to get totally cure and to be free of it all my life. i Am happy today that they helped me and the remedies worked and i can proudly say that i am free from COPD and i am cured completely its not worst thing to have COPD/EMPHYSEMA as a begin,you can reach Native Herbal Clinic:(nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348140073956

Hello everyone i Am GREAT MARK and i am from USA i am here to give my testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,Odaba I was heartbroken because i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr,Odaba and decided to email him on his email i saw on the internet,(drodabasolutionhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a large penis.thanks to DR Odaba for is herbal product. you can also reach him with his Email:Drodabasolutionhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him today on this number +2347063915230 THANK YOU FOR READING

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TESTIMONY OF HOW I GOT MY LOAN FROM A LEGIT LOAN LENDER Hello everyone my name is Zlata Reckova,from Slovakia. Am here to testify how I got my loan from Mr. Ibrahim Martins. after I applied several times from various loan lenders who promised to help but they never gave me the loan. Until a friend of mine introduced me to Mr. Ibrahim Martins. he promised to help me and indeed he did as he promised without any form of delay.I never thought there are still reliable loan lenders until I met Mr. Ibrahim Martins, who indeed helped me with the loan and changed my belief. I don't know if you are in anyway in need of a genuine and urgent loan, Be free to contact Mr. Ibrahim Martins. via email: lendercities.mlc01@outlook.com Mobile /whattsApp +393511678360 --- +15123729576)

Hello viewers around the Globe, I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist called Dr, OLHIA and i decided to contact him on his {oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com} so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer, and i had to settle out with my Ex girlfriend Ella, i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr OLIHA I also learn that Dr OLIHA also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr OLIHA now for help on his email {oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com} or whats app him number: +2349038382931

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I would like to let all know that the size of your Penis really matters in your relationship or marriage. I got married to my wife about 1 month after we met on a photo studio, we lived happily for the first 3 months of our marriage until i and my wife started having quarrels at home because i couldn't satisfy her on bed with my little penis. Actually my penis was very small, it measured about 4.5 inch long on erection and i am 39 years old. My wife said it was forbidden by the women of this world. My wife started sleeping with other men outside. Sometimes i will return from work without finding my wife at home and whenever i call or ask her where she was, she will always snub at me and sometimes just tell me to go get a larger dick. All this continued for a long time and it hurt me so much that i was at the edge of breaking up on the marriage till when i read about a doctor called DR.OMOHAN. online. I never thought i could smile and be in a happy marriage again if not for the help of DR.OMOHAN. I got the doctors Emails:(dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com ) on the internet and i emailed him, and he got back to me with some encouraging words, he got me some herbs cream which i use for just 8 days and i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, and without surgery. This went on for a little period of about 10 days and to my surprise my wife keeps screaming that she love my big dick now. Now my wife no longer cheat on me, and my penis is now about 10.5 inches long on erection and off course very large round. And now my wife uses breasts, hips and bums enlargement. I and my wife are very happy for the help rendered to me by DR.OMOHAN , and i want to say a big thanks to Doctor for the help. You can contact the Doctor now on his Email:( dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com ) Am thankful to the doctor for helping me.

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I NEED A EFFECTIVE AND POWERFUL LOVE SPELL CASTER AND LOTTERY SPELL 2020 WICCALOVESPELLTOOLS@GMAIL.COM OR WHATSAPP HIM :+19085174108 With so much in my heart i am here to express myself on how Dr. jumba saved my marriage from divorce. Myself and my husband were having some misunderstanding and it was tearing our marriage apart to the extend my husband was seeking for a divorce. So i have no option than to go to the internet to seek for solution to my problem it was there i came across Dr. jumba details and about how he has helped a lot of people by restoring there relationship. I contact Dr.jumba and in less than 48 hours my husband cancelled the divorce papers. Now myself and my husband live together in peace and harmony all thanks to Dr.jumba for saving my marriage from breaking up. Dr. jumba contact information are via email: wiccalovespelltools@yahoo.com or wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com, text or call him +19085174108 I highly recommend his services.  website : http://wiccalovespelltools.website2.me/ blogspot created by me for dr jumba, to thank him for restoring happiness back to my relationship : https://wiccalovespelltols.blogspot.com/

I'm tom kingsley,USA.It's been a while since I've written to thank Dr OHIKHOBO who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2016, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day my Aunt Rosa introduce me to Doctor OHIKHOBO having seen so many testimony online about his herbal medication to cure HERPES and gave me his email:drohikhoboherbalcenter@gmail.com , so i mail him. He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to follow, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after one weeks the HERPES that was in my body got vanished. so if you are you are having herpes or any kind of disease listed below *DIABETES *CANCER *STROKE *INFERTILITY *HEART DISEASE *HIV *COLD SORES *GENITAL WARTS*LUPOS VIRUS*CHLAMYDIA And you also want cure, you can also email him at:drohikhoboherbalcenter@gmail.com or through his WhatsApp +2348103601042

I was diagnosed of herpes 3 years, and ever since then i have been taking treatment to prevent outbreaks, burning and blisters, but there was no improvement until i came across testimonies of Dr. VOODOO on how he has been curing different people from different diseases all over the world, then i contacted him. After our conversation he sent me the medicine which i took according to his instructions for up to 2 weeks. After completing the medication i went back to my doctor for another test and the virus was all gone and i was completely cured, since then i have not had any signs of outbreak. I'm so filled with joy. With herbal medication Herpes Virus is 100% curable. I refer Dr VOODOO to everyone out there with the virus Email: voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com Add Dr voodoo on whatsApp +2348140120719

HELLO everyone! Still don’t know the right words to express my Gratitude to dr. Omoru herbal formula...i was diagnosed with the HERPES VIRUS for the past 6 years, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found many testimonies of how doctor Omoru herbal mixture has been saving lives in an online research Like anybody would do, i'm Glad to be completely cured and freed from this virus.., i advice any one that is living with HERPES virus should Contact doctor Omoru today, because he has the cure to this virus...contact him on email omoru81@gmail.com or whatsApp him on +2348180828544

Greetings everyone. i am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr OKISIN a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis , if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I advIce you to contact Dr OKISIN on his email (dr.okisinsolutiontemple@gmail.com) ) or contact him on whatsapp number +2348149508633 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks i recommend Dr OKISIN he is also specialized on  breast and boobs enlargement i will advise you to contact him for help   DR OKISIN whatsapp number +2348149508633...........  

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