Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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hello everyone i am Blake Carrington from new york a medical doctor i never believed herbal products could solve what my science technology could not solve ,i have been having little penis size since childhood and that really Embarass me alot and up till now that i am 37 years old i still find it difficult to find a permanent solution until my friend from Africa at work place introduce his uncle to me Dr Harry .i contacted him through his email drharrysolution@gmail.com and he replied me and we discussed my situation and told me what i need to do ,i did it and received his herbal medicine  through UPS and i got it within 3/5 days and used his miraculous herbal mixture cream just as he told me ,its just 4 days i started measuring and got 4 inches already and after two weeks i got 11 inches size and 8.0 girth size .i was so happy because no woman will dare reject me now with my big Cock .life is really full of surprises me that was having 2 inches before now having 11 inches big cock size .so if you need any help or cure to any sickness or disease like small penis,low sperm count,premature ejaculation,HIV/AIDS ,herpes ,spells of all kinds etc  you can quickly whatsapp him on +2349036417079 or visit his website https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple good luck as you reach him 

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REAL AND POWERFUL LOVE SPELL THAT WORK FAST AND EFFECTIVELY https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com Hello everyone i know there is someone somewhere reading this,My name is Dena Cruz from Leicester city,England,I want to share a great work of a spell caster called Priest Ade my husband and i had a fight which led to our divorce but when he left me a part of me left with him and i was to sad and cried all day and night i was searching something online when i saw people testifying about his great work and i just decided to give him a try i did everything he told me to do and he assured me that after 24 hours my husband will come back to me,the next morning to my greatest surprised a car stopped outside my house and it was my husband i'm so happy he can also help you email him at ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com   Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me WhatsApp +2347059715465

REAL AND POWERFUL LOVE SPELL THAT WORK FAST AND EFFECTIVELY https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com Hello everyone i know there is someone somewhere reading this,My name is Dena Cruz from Leicester city,England,I want to share a great work of a spell caster called Priest Ade my husband and i had a fight which led to our divorce but when he left me a part of me left with him and i was to sad and cried all day and night i was searching something online when i saw people testifying about his great work and i just decided to give him a try i did everything he told me to do and he assured me that after 24 hours my husband will come back to me,the next morning to my greatest surprised a car stopped outside my house and it was my husband i'm so happy he can also help you email him at ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com   Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me WhatsApp +2347059715465

i will love to share my testimony to you all the people in world i got married to my husband about 2 year ago we start having problems at home like we stop sleeping on the same bed,fighting about little things he always comes home late at night,drinking too much and sleeping with other women out side i have never love any man in my life except him. he is the father of my child and i don't want to loose him because we have worked so hard together to become what we are and have today .few month ago he now decided to live me and the kid,being a single mother can be hard sometimes and so i have nobody to turn to and i was heart broken.i called my mom and explain every thing to her,my mother told me about DR.azen how he helped her solve the problem between her and my dad i was surprise about it because they have been without each other for three and a half years and it was like a miracle how they came back to each other. i was directed to DR. azen on his email. (azentemple@gmail.com ) and explain everything to him,so he promise me not to worry that he will cast a spell and make things come back to how we where so much in love again and that it was another female spirit that was controlling my husband he told me that my problem will be solved within two days if i believe i said OK So he cast a spell for me and after two days my love came back asking me to forgive him i Am so happy now. so that why i decided to share my experience with every body that have such problem contact Dr azen the great spell caster on his email addresses (azentemple@gmail.com)or whatsapp Dr azen on (+2349038299828)

i will love to share my testimony to you all the people in world i got married to my husband about 2 year ago we start having problems at home like we stop sleeping on the same bed,fighting about little things he always comes home late at night,drinking too much and sleeping with other women out side i have never love any man in my life except him. he is the father of my child and i don't want to loose him because we have worked so hard together to become what we are and have today .few month ago he now decided to live me and the kid,being a single mother can be hard sometimes and so i have nobody to turn to and i was heart broken.i called my mom and explain every thing to her,my mother told me about DR.azen how he helped her solve the problem between her and my dad i was surprise about it because they have been without each other for three and a half years and it was like a miracle how they came back to each other. i was directed to DR. azen on his email. (azentemple@gmail.com ) and explain everything to him,so he promise me not to worry that he will cast a spell and make things come back to how we where so much in love again and that it was another female spirit that was controlling my husband he told me that my problem will be solved within two days if i believe i said OK So he cast a spell for me and after two days my love came back asking me to forgive him i Am so happy now. so that why i decided to share my experience with every body that have such problem contact Dr azen the great spell caster on his email addresses (azentemple@gmail.com)or whatsapp Dr azen on (+2349038299828)

I have been suffering hard Shipley from HIV / AIDS since 6 years now, and i happen to have 2 kids for my husband, and now we cannot proceed to have another kids all because of my disease and now i have to do all what a human like i and my husband can do just to get my disease healed, i have went to several places to seek for help not even one person could ever help, until i melt a comment on the daily news paper that was commented by Ms Claudia about how this powerful traditional doctor help her get cured of the disease (HIV- AIDS) "my fellow beloved" i firstly taught having a help from a spiritual traditional healer was a wrong idea, but i think of these, will i continue to stress on these disease all day when i have someone to help me save my life? "so i gather all my faiths and put in all interest to contact him through his Email address (azentemple@gmail.com) so after i have mailed him of helping me to cured my disease, he respond to me fast as possible that i should not be afraid, that he is a truthful and powerful doctor which i firstly claimed him to be. So after all set has been done, he promise me that i will be healed but on a condition that i provide him some items and obeyed all he said. I did all by accepting his oracle fact and only to see that the following week Dr AZEN ::mail me on my mail box that my work is successfully done, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later he ask for medical test i was first shocked and later arise to be the happiest woman on earth after i have concluded my final test in the hospital by my doctor that i am now HIV-Negative. My papers for check are with me and now i am happy and glad for his miraculous help and power. With these i must to everyone who might seek for any help, either for HIV cure or much more to contact him now at this Email:( azentemple@gmail.com) "sir thank you so much for your immediate cure of my disease, i must say for curing my disease, i owe you in return. Thanks and be blessed sir .My name is Natasha Floyd His Email address is( azentemple@gmail.com) or call or add him on whatsapp +2349038299828 NOTE THAT THIS GREAT MAN CAN CURE ANY TYPES OF SICKNESS OKAY (1) herbes (2) hiv (3) als (4) dick enlargement (5) hepatitis B (6) ALOPECIA (7) CANCER, (8) DIABETES, (9) HERPES CURE (10) GETTING YOUR LOVER OR HUSBAND BACK (11) IMPOTENCE, (12) BARENESS/INFERTILITY (13) DIARRHEA (14) ASTHMA..…

i couldn't believe that i would ever be re-unite with my ex-lover, i was so traumatize staying all alone with no body to stay by me and to be with me, but i was so lucky one certain day to meet this powerful spell caster Dr Akhere,after telling him about my situation he did everything humanly possible to see that my lover come back to me,indeed after casting the spell my ex-lover came back to me less than 48 hours,my ex-lover came back begging me that he will never leave me again,3 months later we got engaged and married,if you are having this same situation just contact Dr Akhere on his email: AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com thanks very much sir for restoring my ex-lover back to me,his email: AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com or call/whatsapp:+2349057261346 hindi ako makapaniwala na kailanman ay muling makiisa ako sa aking kasintahan, labis akong na-trauma sa pananatiling nag-iisa na walang katawan na manatili sa akin at makakasama ko, ngunit napakasuwerte ako sa isang tiyak na araw upang matugunan ito malakas na spell caster na si Dr Akhere, matapos sabihin sa kanya ang tungkol sa aking sitwasyon ginawa niya ang lahat ng makataong posible upang makita na ang aking kasintahan ay bumalik sa akin, sa katunayan matapos na ihagis ang spell ang aking dating kasintahan ay bumalik sa akin ng mas mababa sa 48 oras, dumating ang dating kasintahan ko. bumalik sa pagmamakaawa sa akin na hindi na niya ako pababayaan, 3 buwan mamaya kami ay nakipag-ugnay at nag-asawa, kung nagkakaroon ka ng parehong sitwasyong ito makipag-ugnay lamang kay Dr Akhere sa kanyang email: AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com maraming salamat sa sir sa pagpapanumbalik ng aking dating kasintahan bumalik sa akin, ang kanyang email: AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com o tumawag / whatsapp: +2349057261346

REAL URGENT EFFECTIVE SPELL CASTER TO HELP BRING BACK EX LOVER AND SAVE MARRIAGE https://urgentspellcast.wordpress.com/ Hello everyone my is Elisa Keily am so over whelmed with joy all thanks to Dr Raypower spell.my husband left me for another woman few years back and I was very devastated cause I never did anything wrong to him,I was left with my two kid and a job that pays little.i was almost giving up until I saw a testimony online about Dr Raypower and I decided to contact him.i explained my problem to him and he assured me I'll see a positive result after 24hurs,surprisingly my husband came back the day after the spell begging me to forgive him and promised to never leave.my husband has been back for 6 months now and we've never had any issues, am glad I didn't doubt Dr Raypower cause he sure can solve any problems with fast relief you can also contact him for help now Email: Urgentspellcast@gmail.com or Urgentspellcast@yahoo.com Website: http://urgentspellcast.website2.me/ Blog: https://drraypower.blogspot.com/  WhatsApp: +14243308109

i was diagnosed with Herpes for 2 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw miss Katrina post on how Dr Robinson saved her from the VIRUS with his herbal medicine i contacted Dr Robinson on his email address drrobinsonspellhome@gmail.com or via whats app  +393511269803    we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me through courier service and told me how to use it,after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test ,then the result was negative,am the happiest person on earth now. this testimony is real.thanks to Dr Robinson God bless you.  

24 HOURS LOVE SPELL CASTER 2020   I feel very happy to share my great and wonderful testimony with everyone on this platform..: I was married for 7 years to my husband and all of a sudden another woman came into the picture he started hating me and he was abusive and all because i never bear him a child. but i still loved him with all my heart and wanted him at all cost.... He filed for divorce and my whole life was turning apart and i didn't know what to do, he moved out of the house and abandoned me all alone,one day a very close friend of mine told me about trying spiritual means to get my husband back,so i went online to search and i came across so many spell caster who only wasted my time and took a lot of money from me,but i went back to her and told her that spiritual way has only taking my money and not yielding anything, and she introduced me to a spell caster, Dr gbojie, so i decided to try it. although i didn't believe in all those things because of what i have gone through lately, i contacted Dr gbojie  and he  explain all my problems to him and he told me that i shouldn't worry that when he cast the spell on me and my husband that my husband is going to run back to me and that within 2 weeks am going to get pregnant,so i did the little he ask me to do and behold it all work out,my husband run back to me and right now we have Twins Girl and a boy,so all thanks to Dr gbojie  you're indeed a great spell caster, in case anyone needs help here,  whatsapp him now +2349066410185 or email him : gbojiespiritualtemple@gmail.com  Website :   http://gbojiespiritualtemple.website2.me  

I'm Nicole walls from  USA.It's been a while since I've written to thank Dr Erumusele who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2014, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day my Aunt Rosa introduce me to Doctor Erumusele having seen so many testimony online about his herbal medication to cure HERPES and gave me his email:drerumuselecliniccenter@gmail.com WhatsApp number +2347083231497, so i mail him. He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to follow, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after one weeks the HERPES that was in my body got vanished. so if you are you are having herpes or any kind of disease listed below *DIABETES *CANCER *STROKE *INFERTILITY *HEART DISEASE *HIV *COLD SORES *GENITAL WARTS*LUPOS VIRUS And you also want cure, you can also email him my email Nicolewalls58@gmail.com or through my WhatsApp +1-706-804-2665.

I am so happy how Dr Voke cured me from Herpes virus and Hepatitis-b, since 4 year ago i was effected with herpes simplex virus 1 and hepatitis-b, and i have taken all manner of drugs prescribed to me by several doctors,but all my effort was wasted,i cried all day thinking on how i can be cured of this illness, i lost hope while i was looking for solution for my health,but one faithful day, i was searching the internet i came across several testimonies about Dr Voke, and how he has cure so many effected individual ,so i try and contact his email and asked him for solution about my herpes simplex virus 1 and he started the preparation to my cure,to my greatest surprise after two weeks, i was totally cure by his powerful herbal medicine,i never believe that i could be cured from this wicked disease until i met Dr voke i’m very grateful to you and i know your herbal medicine will save more millions of lives. his email Address: doctorvoke@yahoo.com,

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