Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I had my first outbreaks and I was tested back for both HSV-1 and  HSV-2. Both my husband and I tested positive for HSV-1. Last year I found  out my husband was cheating, so I decided to do a retest on all STDs  including HSV-1 and HSV-2, only difference is that this time I went to a  different clinic. Anyway I tested positive for HSV-1 which I knew I had but  surprisingly HSV-2 as well, I was so upset and got divorced with my  husband. 3 months ago a friend of mine recommended me to an African Herbal  doctor DR.Edidia. I explained everything that I have been passing through  all these years to him and he encouraged me that I will be cured  completely!. I ordered for his herbal exploit/medicine and used it  accordingly to his direction and within short period of using the herbal  medicine I was cured completely from my HSV-1 and HSV-2. I'm so relieved to  say that I've not had even one outbreak ever since again and I was also  tested Negative by my doctor. I'm feeling so great! from within and I truly  endorse this product, it really works. His herbal medicine is very active  and effective, and other  can of cure for HERPES, DIABETES, CANCER, HEPATITIS, HPV,HIV,COPD,KIDNEY FAILURE,PCOS and other diseases..... You can  contact doctor edidia on email: dredidiaherbalhome@gmail.com and  you can call/whatsapp him with +2349074505296 for your own cure too..     visit his website https://dredidiaherbalhome.wixsite.com/dredidiaherbalhome am clara kat here is my private email clarakat8@gmail.com

HOW I GOT RID OF MY HERPES Virus WITH THE HELP OF DR Aire. Greetings to the general public, i want to inform the general public how i was cured of HERPES Simplex Virus by a Doctor called Dr Aire. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and is Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about how Doctor Dr Aire cured them. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took as instructed and it seriously worked for me, i am a free person now without problem, my HERPES result came out negative. I pray for you Dr Aire God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and great man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem like HIV/AID, CANCER,HERPATITIS,DIABETES,HPV,INFECTION ETC. Reach him on his Email Address at=== drairehome@gmail.com or you can contact him on WHATSAPP FOR EASY ACCESS at +2347036740271

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Hello viewers around the Globe, I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the INTERNET about this specialist called Dr,MOSES and decided to contact him on his email: Dr.mosesherbalisthome@gmail.com) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr MOSES I also learn that Dr MOSES also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr MOSES now for help on his email (Dr.mosesherbalisthome@gmail.com) or add him on whatsapp line +2348109374702.............. HE ALSO CURE THE FOLLOWING ........ HERPES VIRUS........... HPV VIRUS........ WEAK ERECTION ............ . PREMATURE EJACULATION............. . LOW SPERM COUNT.....................

I was despondent because i had a very small penis, about 2.5 inches soft and 4 inches hard not nice enough to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many product which doctors prescribe for me, but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments on the INTERNET about this specialist called Dr, osemuhau  and decided to contact him on his email: drosemuhau@gmail.com) so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis Enlargement, Within 3 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer, and i had to settle out with my Ex girlfriend JOY, i was surprised when she said that she is satisfied with my sex and i have got a large penis. Am so happy, thanks to Dr osemuhau  I also learn that Dr osemuhau   also help with Breast Enlargement Hips and Bums Enlargement etc.. If you are in any situation with a little Penis, weak ejaculation, small breast_hips_bums do get to Dr osemuhau   now for help on his email ( drosemuhau@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348168714427  )https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Osemuhau-Herbal-Medicine-111115653769173 

I believed God has sent dr otaigbe to help people out from this horrible virus. i was diagnosis with herpes for 3 years, few months ago a friend introduced me to dr otaigbe and i only took his natural treatment for a week & 3 days, and i totally got cured with his herbal treatment. if you are suffering from genital herpes, you don't have to be roaming round dr otaigbe email is been attached to contact him.{drotaigbespelhome@gmail.com }or whats-app {+2349066103332} GOOD LUCK

I'm so thankful to drashaosemudiamen for his wonderful work done for me.  i have been diagnosed of herpes disease for a long time and it have affected my job and i almost lost my job because i was suppose to be physically and healthily fit for the job without any disease but i slept with a stranger that i barely know and i was affected, i searched out for all remedy that i could, but all was a disappointment, until i met with the great Drashaosemudiamen who i discussed with and he promised to help me, and not too long he prepared a powerful medicine for me and when i used it for 5weeks i was totally cured i am so happy to be cured from Drashaosemudiamen herbal medicine, you too can be cured just contact him now on this email: drashaosemudiamen@gmail. comor his mobile Number/ what app:+2347052021645 He also have a herbal cure for Following DISEASES,this is not scam is 100% Real -COLD SORE -ALS -LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTION -LOW SPERM COUNT -STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS -STROKE -IMPOTENCE -PILE -HYPERTENSION -LOW SPERM COUNT -ASTHMA -CANCER -BARENESS/INFERTILITY -FIBROID -ASTHMA -SICKLE CELL -BARENESS/INFERTILITY -DIARRHEA and so on...

Good news to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Herbalist Roman a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV 1&2, i had suffered from this disease for the past 5 years and I have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine he sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 3 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested free from herpes. All thanks to God for leading me to Herbalist Roman who was able to cure me completely from this deadly disease, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer because I got to know him through a friend who he cured from itchy. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance or silent and don’t let that illness take your life.   kindly contact him via email: healthylifeherbalcentre@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348074216045 I.G: @Herbalist_Roman visit his webiste https://healthylife-herbal-centre.jimdosite.com/

Good news to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Herbalist Roman a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV 1&2, i had suffered from this disease for the past 5 years and I have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine he sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 3 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested free from herpes. All thanks to God for leading me to Herbalist Roman who was able to cure me completely from this deadly disease, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer because I got to know him through a friend who he cured from itchy. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance or silent and don’t let that illness take your life.   kindly contact him via email: healthylifeherbalcentre@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348074216045 I.G: @Herbalist_Roman visit his webiste https://healthylife-herbal-centre.jimdosite.com/

Hello everyone i want to testify of the great and powerful spell caster named Priest Ade who brought back my ex who left me and got engaged to another girl,We where happy together when all of a sudden he just change he used to call me every morning and and night before going to bed but all that stopped when i call him he yell at me and told me he didn't want to have anything to do with me anymore i was so sad and confused i didn't know what to do then i went online to search on how to get back my ex then i found an article where someone was talking about how the great and powerful Priest Ade helped her and she left his email address i took it and contacted him i told him my problem he only smiled and told me to relax everything will be OK i did everything he asked me to do and he assured me that after 24hrs he will be back,To my greatest surprise the next morning it was my boyfriend he came back knelling and begging for me to accept him back now we are so happy together he can also help you contact him ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com  https://priestade.blogspot.com Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me View more on YouTube: https://youtu.be/jWta3jLP_fo WhatsApp +2347059715465

I just want the whole world to know about this spell caster I met two weeks ago, wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com I cannot say everything he has done for me my wife left me 3 years ago left with my kids I was going through online when I meant this wonderful man's testimony online I decided to give it a try and my wife is back to me now and we ar1e happily married again cause is too much to put in writing all I can say is thank you very much am very happy .and does alot of spell including Love Spell Death Spell Money Spell Power Spell Success Spell Sickness Spell Pregnancy Spell Marriage Spell Job Spell Protection Spell Lottery Spell Court Case Spell Luck Spell etc. In case you need his help contact him on this email address wisdomspiritualtemple@gmail.com he is a good man thanks.

Hello Everyone out there,I am here to give my testimony about a Herbalist doctor who helped me . I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2016, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day I was in the river side thinking where I can go to get solution. so a lady walked to me telling me why am I so sad and i open up all to her telling her my problem, she told me that she can help me out, she introduce me to a doctor who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS and gave me his email, so i mail him. He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after two weeks the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken and also need a help, you can also email him at drpuritypowerfultemple@gmail.com or whatsapp number: +2348102430456 Contact him today 

Hi every one i am Selena and i am from USA had i fight with my husband about three years ago and since then he has refuse to talk to me or even care about our family affair he abandoned us and went after another woman leaving me with three kids two girls and a boy,so last weeks a friend of my introduced me to a spell caster called Dr,Ancient who helped me brought my husband back many think he is a scam but i promise you that he is nothing compare to that not even close so if you have some problems in having or getting your ex back you can contact the great and wonderful spell caster Dr,Ancient in this address and he be willing to help you via; ancientbeninshrine@gmail.com Add him on whatsapp +2349065034447 contact the dr personal blog https://ancientbeninshrine.blogspot.com/

I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past one years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr patrick and she also gave the email address: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. patrick telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the doctor assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email:: dr.patrickherbalhome@mail.com or whatsApp his number on +2348055367947      

Hello my name is Sally my finance broke up with me last week i was so sad I changed completely, I wasn't eating and i wasn't talking to anybody, I cried a lot,I was so depressed and stressed out that I was scared I'm going to end up in the hospital because of all the stress and depression until one day i search online on getting love tips because I Love & care about him deeply and I just want us to be together as a couple again and I want us to last forever then i found a powerful spell caster Called Priest Ade that he solved so many relationship problem then Priest Ade told me he will come back to me between 24hrs after he cast spell on him never believe it until my finance called me on the phone and told me he want us to come back and live happily together forever , Am so happy now that Priest Ade help me bring my finance back to me. Thanks so much Priest Ade  he can also help you Email him at  ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com  https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me WhatsApp +2347059715465

My Name is Dr sebi you can Contact Me via Email drsebicurecenter@gmail.com For Penis Enlargement Product to help you get as long as 8inches Long with good Erection. Contact Me Via Email : drsebicurecenter@gmail.com   Via WhatsApp +2347010538590

Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me WhatsApp +2347059715465 .

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