Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

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PERFECT CURE FOR HERPES THAT WORK FAST WITHIN 3 WEEK'S WITH DR MOHAMMED HERBAL MEDICINE, I saw so many testimonies about Dr MOHAMMED a great HERBAL DOCTOR that will help you CURE and give you the rightful health to live a joyful life, i didn't believe it at first, but as the pain got worsen and my life was at risk after using lots pf drugs from the hospital and no changes so i decided to give a try to Dr MOHAMMED, I contacted him also and told him i want a cure for HERPES, he gave me advice on what i must do and he deliver it to me in my home address i gave him and i got the medicine which i use according to his instruction, and today i must say I am so grateful to this man Dr MOHAMMED for curing me from HERPES and for restoring me back to my normal health and a sound life and i am making this known to everyone out there who have been trying all day to be cured from HERPES or any sickness should not waist more time just contact him with his details below, believe me this is the only way to get cured from HERPES, this is the real solution we all have been searching for. Do not waste more time contacting him today for you can also leave a sound and happy life. contact info below. (EMAIL; herbalcure12@gmail.com) :  or WhatsApp or Call him on(+ 2349036036397).     :  and  facebook page   facebook.com/Herpes-cure-with-herbal-medicine-643324002519440   you can as well contact him on other issues you are having like HEPATITIS B,DIABETICS,CANCER,ALS, HIV,BODY REDUCTION AND Enlargement, FIBROID,CANCER,PREGNANCY, Relationship issues etc..(EMAIL; herbalcure12@gmail.com) :

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The greatest Joy in my life today is that i have been cured of Herpes by a Doctor called Dr. Ishiaku, I was infected with HERPES Disease in 2019, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution,so that my body can be okay. Until one faithful day as i was browsing on the internet I saw a testimony on how Dr. ishiaku has helped people in curing Herpes and other diseases, quickly copied his WhatsApp number so i contacted him for solution for my Herpes disease, So Dr. Ishiaku told me that his going to prepare his herbal medicine for my health which he sent to me, luckily after 2week my Herpes was cured. Dr Ishiaku is well recognize as one of the best herbalist doctor in Africa, you don't have to be sad anymore or cry anymore on this disease when the cure is available. The medicine has NO SIDE EFFECT,there's no special diet when taking the medicine. He also cure ALS, HIV AIDS, CANCER, HPV, DIABETES and lots more. For enquiries: E-mail: ishiakuherbalcure@gmail.com WhatsApp: +2348180828544 Website: https://www.ishiakuherbalcure.Wordpress.com

PERFECT CURE FOR HERPES THAT WORK FAST WITHIN 3 WEEK'S WITH DR MOHAMMED HERBAL MEDICINE, I saw so many testimonies about Dr MOHAMMED a great HERBAL DOCTOR that will help you CURE and give you the rightful health to live a joyful life, i didn't believe it at first, but as the pain got worsen and my life was at risk after using lots pf drugs from the hospital and no changes so i decided to give a try to Dr MOHAMMED, I contacted him also and told him i want a cure for HERPES, he gave me advice on what i must do and he deliver it to me in my home address i gave him and i got the medicine which i use according to his instruction, and today i must say I am so grateful to this man Dr MOHAMMED for curing me from HERPES and for restoring me back to my normal health and a sound life and i am making this known to everyone out there who have been trying all day to be cured from HERPES or any sickness should not waist more time just contact him with his details below, believe me this is the only way to get cured from HERPES, this is the real solution we all have been searching for. Do not waste more time contacting him today for you can also leave a sound and happy life. contact info below. (EMAIL; herbalcure12@gmail.com) :  or WhatsApp or Call him on(+ 2349036036397).     :  and  facebook page   facebook.com/Herpes-cure-with-herbal-medicine-643324002519440   you can as well contact him on other issues you are having like HEPATITIS B,DIABETICS,CANCER,ALS, HIV,BODY REDUCTION AND Enlargement, FIBROID,CANCER,PREGNANCY, Relationship issues etc..(EMAIL; herbalcure12@gmail.com) :

I still don’t know the right words to express my gratitude to this great man Dr. Aba. After been diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2months ago, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found testimonies of Great Dr. aba online .research and on Facebook, Like anybody would be, I was very skeptical about contacting him, but i later did and he opened up to me and told me what was involved and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, I was cured from herpes by the herbal medication I received from him. I never thought that herpes can be cured from the bottom of my heart. I'm truly grateful, i pray you have a long life so you can help many more people on earth with your herbal medical support, You can Email him via email dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or for easy and fast communication you can also call or add him on whats-app with this mobile number +2348107155060, one thing i love most about DR aba is honestly, and he is very polite with his patience, everything he told me was what he did, and his herbal medicine are very affordable.      

I still don’t know the right words to express my gratitude to this great man Dr. Aba. After been diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2months ago, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found testimonies of Great Dr. aba online research and on Facebook, Like anybody would be, I was very skeptical about contacting him, but i later did and he opened up to me and told me what was involved and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, I was cured from .herpes by the herbal medication I received from him. I never thought that herpes can be cured from the bottom of my heart. I'm truly grateful, i pray you have a long life so you can help many more people on earth with your herbal medical support, You can Email him via email dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or for easy and fast communication you. can also call or add him on whats-app with this mobile number +2348107155060, one thing i love most about DR aba is honestly, and he is very polite with his patience, everything he told me was what he did, and his herbal medicine are very affordable.      

I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring .their doctor report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to Dr Aba, that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive or any STD diseases his email is: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2348107155060    

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I want to use this opportunity to thank Dr Oyagu for the grate work he has done for me and my cousin sister, I was cured from herpes virus through his herbal remedy and my cousin sisters was also cured from Cancer. This is a grate testimony for what Dr Oyagu Has done for me and my entire generation. I’m giving this testimony so that those of you out there can contact him while he keeps saving my relatives. Send him a Dm and get a better health totally. Contact him via WhatsApp +2348101755322 or Email address:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com you can also reach him on his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome

I want to use this opportunity to thank Dr Oyagu for the grate work he has done for me and my cousin sister, I was cured from herpes virus through his herbal remedy and my cousin sisters was also cured from Cancer. This is a grate testimony for what Dr Oyagu Has done for me and my entire generation. I’m giving this testimony so that those of you out there can contact him while he keeps saving my relatives. Send him a Dm and get a better health totally. Contact him via WhatsApp +2348101755322 or Email address:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com you can also reach him on his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome

MY NAME IS EMILIO DONALDI want to use this medium to tell the world about Doctor johnson miller who helped me in getting my lover back with his powerful spell, my ex and i where having misunderstanding which led to our breakup though i went to beg her several times to please forgive and accept me back because i know i offended her but each time i went i always feel more deeply in pain and agony because she always walk out on me and would not want to listen to what i have to tell but on i faithful day as i was browsing i came arose a testimony of a woman whose problem was more than mine and yet Doctor johnson miller helped her with his spell so i was happy and also contacted Doctor johnson miller for help via email and then told him my story but the only thing he said was that i will wipe you tear with my spell so lucky for me everything want well just as he promised and right now i have got my fiance back and we are both living happily. there is nothing Doctor johnson miller can not do with is spell and just as promise my self i will keep testifying on the internet of how Doctor johnson miller helped me.Are your problem greater that mine or less i give you 100% guarantee that Doctor johnson miller will put an end to it with his powerful spell, contact Doctor johnson miller for help Via email johnsonmillerspellcaster11@gmail.com .or you can also contact him on WhatsApp +23470546563511. GETTING YOUR EX LOVER BACK.2. WINNING LOTTERIES.3. CHILD BEARING.4. BREAKING OF GENERATION COURSE.5. GETTING OF JOB.6. JOB PROMOTION.7. MONEY SPELL.8. SPIRITUAL PROTECTION.9. HERBAL CARE.10.BEAUTY SPELL.11. REVENGE SPELLS.12 WICCAN SPELL. 13POWERFUL AMULETS SPELL.14HEALING SPELL.15MIRACLE SPELL. E.T.C

I already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because I have try many treatment none of them work out for me I have be to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca I contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which I took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because I have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so I decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks I was totally free from Herpes. I want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322.. or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome. He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine: 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

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