Tukilämmitysjärjestelmillä potentiaalia päästöjen ja kustannusten vähentäjinä

Tukilämmitysjärjestelmien liittäminen pääjärjestelmän rinnalle tai tueksi on yksi lämmityksen tehostamistavoista. Useita lämmitystapoja yhdistelevien hybridiratkaisujen lisääntyminen on kuitenkin – perinteistä puutakkaa ja leivinuunia lukuun ottamatta – ollut kiistattomista hyödyistään huolimatta hidasta. BCDC Energia -hankkeessa tekemämme tutkimus lisää ymmärrystä siitä, miksi tukilämmityshankintoja ei aina tehdä, ja auttaa löytämään keinoja vaikuttaa järjestelmähankintojen yleistymiseen.

Tilojen ja käyttöveden lämmityksen osuus on yli 80 prosenttia asumisen energiankulutuksesta Suomessa. Yhdessä liikkumisen ja ruokailun kanssa lämmitys on asia, jossa yksittäisellä kuluttajalla on mahdollisuus tehdä merkittäviä energiaa säästäviä ja päästöjä pienentäviä valintoja. Tehokas ja toimiva lämmitys tuo käyttökustannussäästöjä kotitaloudelle. Myös kansantalous voi hyötyä tuontienergian tarpeen pienentyessä.

Selvitämme osana BCDC Energia -hankkeen tutkimusta omakotitalorakentajien tukilämmitysjärjestelmävalintoja. Analyysimme pohjautuu 432 omakotitalorakentajan vuosina 2012–2014 tekemiin lämmitysvalintoihin.

Erityisen huomiomme kohteena on neljä tukijärjestelmätyyppiä, joista ilmalämpöpumppu on 44:ssä, aurinkokeräin 20:ssa, vesitakka 14:ssä ja aurinkopaneeli neljässä kodissa. Tarkastelun ulkopuolelle olemme rajanneet muut takkaratkaisut ja leivinuunit, joista ainakin jompikumpi löytyy lähes 90 prosentilta aineistomme kotitalouksista.

Miksi kotitaloudet hankkivat tai jättävät hankkimatta järjestelmän?

Aineistomme perusteella taloudellisten hyötyjen vaikutus on hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä kiistaton. Suurempi säästöpotentiaali ja näin ollen lyhyempi takaisinmaksuaika lisäävät investointihalukkuutta. Esimerkiksi ilmalämpöpumppu hankitaan sähkölämmitysjärjestelmän tueksi erityisesti juuri käyttökustannussäästöjen vuoksi. Toisaalta tukilämmitysjärjestelmien investointikustannukset ovat osalle myös hankinnan este.

Talon sijaintiin liittyvät asiat näyttävät vaikuttavan niin ikään hankintapäätöstä tehtäessä. Lisäksi kotitalouskohtaisilla tekijöillä, kuten nuoremmalla iällä, on jonkin verran merkitystä. Ympäristötietoisuus lisää hankinnan todennäköisyyttä, mutta ei yksistään riitä selittämään ostopäätöstä. Järjestelmäkohtaisissa vaatimuksissa on myös eroja.

Päälämmitysjärjestelmän valinta vaikuttaa jo itsessään tukilämmityshankintoihin. Maalämpöpumpun hankkinut kotitalous investoi huomattavasti harvemmin ei-puupohjaisiin tukilämmitysjärjestelmiin. Osa kotitalouksista on myös sitä mieltä, että maalämpöpumppu yksistään on riittävä. Muun muassa Teknologian tutkimuskeskuksen (VTT) DESY-hankkeen tulokset kertovat kuitenkin, että maalämpöpumppu voisi hyötyä etenkin aurinkoenergiajärjestelmien hankinnasta.

Tietämys lisää positiivista suhtautumista

Kotitaloudet suhtautuvat pääosin myönteisesti useita lämmitysmuotoja hyödyntäviin hybridiratkaisuihin. Erityisen positiivisesti suhtaudutaan aurinkokeräimiin ja -paneeleihin. Järjestelmään liittyvän tietämyksen kasvaessa suhtautuminen muuttuu entistä positiivisemmaksi. Ostamisen harkinnassakin on eroja: osa kotitalouksista vaatii enemmän todisteita hyödyistä ja toimivuudesta ennen kuin edes harkitsevat järjestelmää.

Kotitaloudet saavat lämmitysjärjestelmätietoa useiden eri lähteiden kautta. Tietoa hankitaan sähköisistä kanavista, mutta vuorovaikutus tuttavien kanssa on myös yleistä. Uuden omakotitalon rakentamista suunnittelevat käyttävät aikaa keskusteluihin asiantuntijoiden kanssa, messuihin ja alan aineiston läpikäyntiin. Eri kanavien yhteys tukilämmityshankintapäätökseen vaihtelee. Eritoten henkilökohtaiset kohtaamiset selittävät ostopäätöksiä.

Niin lämmitysjärjestelmät kuin asuintalotkin poikkeavat toisistaan. Järjestelmää hankittaessa tulee ottaa huomioon asuinalueen mahdolliset – kylläkin jo laajalti helpottuneet – lupatarpeet, vaikutukset naapurustoon ja paikallinen tuotantopotentiaali.

Kotitalouksille on tärkeää tehdä tehokkaita, yhteensopivia ja taloudellisia päätöksiä. Yleisesti puolueettomalle ja kansantajuiselle informaatiolle on suuri tarve.

Kuva: iStock

 

Kirjoittajat: Jouni Räihä ja Enni Ruokamo, BCDC Markkinat -tiimi

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloJouni Räihä on tutkimusassistentti Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa.
jouni.raiha(a)oulu.fi



 

 

jouni räihä, enni ruokamo, bcdc energia, oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu, suomen ympäristökeskus, tukilämmitysjärjestelmät, lämmitys, omakotitaloEnni Ruokamo on tutkija, tutkijatohtori Oulun yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulussa ja Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa.
enni.ruokamo(a)oulu.fi

 

 

 

Blogiartikkeli on julkaistu 26.8.2019 BCDC Energia -tutkimushankkeen verkkosivuilla.


 

 

Last updated: 2.9.2019

Comments

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I'm so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. My ex husband is back after he left me and our 2kids for another woman. I was so happy to meet Dr. OKu how he helps many people to bring their Lover back so i contact him to help me too. husbandThat was how Dr. Oku helped me to bring my  back.. A big thank you to Dr. Oku because I never thought my ex Husband will be back to me so quickly with your spell. You are the best and world greatest. If you are here and you need your Ex Let you in over back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact:Email him at: okutemple@gmail.com You can also Call/WhatsApp:+2348163425519 https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Oku-temple-114147387163908/

I'm so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. My ex husband is back after he left me and our 2kids for another woman. I was so happy to meet Dr. OKu how he helps many people to bring their Lover back so i contact him to help me too. husbandThat was how Dr. Oku helped me to bring my  back.. A big thank you to Dr. Oku because I never thought my ex Husband will be back to me so quickly with your spell. You are the best and world greatest. If you are here and you need your Ex Let you in over back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact:Email him at: okutemple@gmail.com You can also Call/WhatsApp:+2348163425519 https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Oku-temple-114147387163908/

i will never ever in my life stop telling the whole world the great Job of DR chris morris whose contact details I saw in a comment section i saw here few weeks ago so and i decided to contact him because i was badly in need of help, I explained my situation to him that Everything was going down the drain as my husband can not stop cheating on me with other women and he pysically abuse me and he promised that my husband will get back to me within 24 to 48 hours as far that my heart still beats for him. I believed in him and he prepared a spell for me and my husband called me exactly when dR chris morris said. He pleaded and said he needs me back and he have been the sweetest man on earth since then. Everyone out there reading my article that needs help should contact him... Email: pyschicspellsoluction@gmail.com, whatsapp or text:+17408092307

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Good day friends. The truth is that GREAT MOTHER IS REAL AND UNIQUELY POWERFUL. Contact the Great Mother today and she will help you. when my husband left me for another woman, i thought that was the end but i contacted many spell casters but there was no positive responses and everything seemed not to be working and i was losing my mind until my cousin told me about the GREAT MOTHER who also helped her to bring back her man and also helped her to cure her herpes disease. I gave it a try and i contacted the Great Mother on her Website and i saw various testimonies about her on her good works how she has helped a lot of people. I explained my problems to her. she laughed and told me that, everything will be okay again and that she will help me bring back my man in 3 days time. I actually thought that it was a joke but since i had no other options, i gave it a try and i did what she instructed me do and to my greatest surprise, my man came back to me begging in 3 days time just as she told me. Contact the Great Mother now on her website:   https://Ourgreatmother1.blogspot.com   and you can also reach her on her email: Greatmotherofsolutiontemple1@gmail.com  or you can equally contact her on her whatsapp number: +17025514367

I'm so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. My ex husband is back after he left me and our 2kids for another woman. I was so happy to meet Dr. OKu how he helps many people to bring their Lover back so i contact him to help me too. husbandThat was how Dr. Oku helped me to bring my  back.. A big thank you to Dr. Oku because I never thought my ex Husband will be back to me so quickly with your spell. You are the best and world greatest. If you are here and you need your Ex Let you in over back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact:Email him at: okutemple@gmail.com You can also Call/WhatsApp:+2348163425519 https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Oku-temple-114147387163908/

Good day friends. The truth is that GREAT MOTHER IS REAL AND UNIQUELY POWERFUL. Contact the Great Mother today and she will help you. when my husband left me for another woman, i thought that was the end but i contacted many spell casters but there was no positive responses and everything seemed not to be working and i was losing my mind until my cousin told me about the GREAT MOTHER who also helped her to bring back her man and also helped her to cure her herpes disease. I gave it a try and i contacted the Great Mother on her Website and i saw various testimonies about her on her good works how she has helped a lot of people. I explained my problems to her. she laughed and told me that, everything will be okay again and that she will help me bring back my man in 3 days time. I actually thought that it was a joke but since i had no other options, i gave it a try and i did what she instructed me do and to my greatest surprise, my man came back to me begging in 3 days time just as she told me. Contact the Great Mother now on her website:   https://Ourgreatmother1.blogspot.com   and you can also reach her on her email: Greatmotherofsolutiontemple1@gmail.com  or you can equally contact her on her whatsapp number: +17025514367

Good day friends. The truth is that GREAT MOTHER IS REAL AND UNIQUELY POWERFUL. Contact the Great Mother today and she will help you. when my husband left me for another woman, i thought that was the end but i contacted many spell casters but there was no positive responses and everything seemed not to be working and i was losing my mind until my cousin told me about the GREAT MOTHER who also helped her to bring back her man and also helped her to cure her herpes disease. I gave it a try and i contacted the Great Mother on her Website and i saw various testimonies about her on her good works how she has helped a lot of people. I explained my problems to her. she laughed and told me that, everything will be okay again and that she will help me bring back my man in 3 days time. I actually thought that it was a joke but since i had no other options, i gave it a try and i did what she instructed me do and to my greatest surprise, my man came back to me begging in 3 days time just as she told me. Contact the Great Mother now on her website:   https://Ourgreatmother1.blogspot.com   and you can also reach her on her email: Greatmotherofsolutiontemple1@gmail.com  or you can equally contact her on her whatsapp number: +17025514367

How I Got My Ex Husband Back........... I am Tania by name. Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. i  want to let the world know about Dr Okosun the Great spell caster that brought back my husband to me when i thought all hope was lost. Dr Okosun  used his powerful spell to put a smile on my face by bringing back my man with his spell, at first i thought i was dreaming when my husband came back to me on his knees begging me to forgive him and accept him back and ever since then he loves me more than i ever expected so i made a vow to my self that i will let the World know about Dr Okosun  because he is a God on earth. Do you have problems in your relationship ? have your partner broke up with you and you still love and want him back ? Do you have problem with your finance ? here is Dr Okosun Email:dr.okosunspelltemple@hotmail.com WhatsApp him +2348139025335 or contact him directly on his website http://drokosunspell4allnation.webs.com

Hi, good day everyone! I am so proud and happy to be out here sharing Dr. Okosisi work. My ex Husband is really back to me on his knees presenting a ruby rose to beg me to take him back and he was feeling regretful and sorry for leaving me and for causing me pains after the divorce which occurred last year. And this whole miracle happened within 48 hours of Contacting the Great Love Psychic. I am the happiest woman today in this whole wide world. Dr. Okosisi, you really did it..Yes.. It's a miracle and everlasting pleasure and cheerfulness for me and my family today. I am so happy now and I don't know how much to convey my thankfulness and appreciation to you sir. To the whole world, contact him if you need urgent help to get your Ex back or if you wanna fix your broken relationship. Dr. Okosisi spells are guaranteed and effective.  Email: Spellservicetemple@gmail.com website: https://spellservicetemple.com/ Whatsapp number: +1 770-200-5468 Amelia, from the USA!!

Hi, good day everyone! I am so proud and happy to be out here sharing Dr. Okosisi work. My ex Husband is really back to me on his knees presenting a ruby rose to beg me to take him back and he was feeling regretful and sorry for leaving me and for causing me pains after the divorce which occurred last year. And this whole miracle happened within 48 hours of Contacting the Great Love Psychic. I am the happiest woman today in this whole wide world. Dr. Okosisi, you really did it..Yes.. It's a miracle and everlasting pleasure and cheerfulness for me and my family today. I am so happy now and I don't know how much to convey my thankfulness and appreciation to you sir. To the whole world, contact him if you need urgent help to get your Ex back or if you wanna fix your broken relationship. Dr. Okosisi spells are guaranteed and effective.  Email: Spellservicetemple@gmail.com website: https://spellservicetemple.com/ Whatsapp number: +1 770-200-5468 Amelia, from the USA!!

URGENT LOVE SPELL CASTER (DR. AWASE) @ dr.awasespellhome23@gmail.com OR DIRECTLY ON WHATSAPP +1 (419) 359‑4367‬ My purpose out here today is to share this article to the world about how Dr Awase helped me in getting back my EX-HUSBAND that broke up with me 4 months ago. I tried all I could to make him see reasons with me so that we can continue our relationship but he denied me. Thank God for giving me the thought of going into the internet for help, I searched properly and I saw different reviews of Dr Awase and I insisted on giving it a try by contacting him via WhatsApp on (‪+1 (419) 359‑4367‬). He prepared a spell and told me that my EX-HUSBAND will come back to me within 48hours. I couldn’t believe my husband came back in less than 32hours, my EX-HUSBAND came back to me and begged me to accept him back. Dr Awase gave me reasons to live again. My life is complete and Joy filled my heart after all the pain I went through. Contact him now if you need any help. Email: dr.awasespellhome23@gmail.com or WhatsApp (‪+1 (419) 359‑4367‬) and he does a lot of spells such as Business, Promotion spell, Etc. Once again thank you Dr Awase 

URGENT LOVE SPELL CASTER (DR. AWASE) @ dr.awasespellhome23@gmail.com OR DIRECTLY ON WHATSAPP +1 (419) 359‑4367‬ My purpose out here today is to share this article to the world about how Dr Awase helped me in getting back my EX-HUSBAND that broke up with me 4 months ago. I tried all I could to make him see reasons with me so that we can continue our relationship but he denied me. Thank God for giving me the thought of going into the internet for help, I searched properly and I saw different reviews of Dr Awase and I insisted on giving it a try by contacting him via WhatsApp on (‪+1 (419) 359‑4367‬). He prepared a spell and told me that my EX-HUSBAND will come back to me within 48hours. I couldn’t believe my husband came back in less than 32hours, my EX-HUSBAND came back to me and begged me to accept him back. Dr Awase gave me reasons to live again. My life is complete and Joy filled my heart after all the pain I went through. Contact him now if you need any help. Email: dr.awasespellhome23@gmail.com or WhatsApp (‪+1 (419) 359‑4367‬) and he does a lot of spells such as Business, Promotion spell, Etc. Once again thank you Dr Awase 

URGENT LOVE SPELL CASTER (DR. AWASE) @ dr.awasespellhome23@gmail.com OR DIRECTLY ON WHATSAPP +1 (419) 359‑4367‬ My purpose out here today is to share this article to the world about how Dr Awase helped me in getting back my EX-HUSBAND that broke up with me 4 months ago. I tried all I could to make him see reasons with me so that we can continue our relationship but he denied me. Thank God for giving me the thought of going into the internet for help, I searched properly and I saw different reviews of Dr Awase and I insisted on giving it a try by contacting him via WhatsApp on (‪+1 (419) 359‑4367‬). He prepared a spell and told me that my EX-HUSBAND will come back to me within 48hours. I couldn’t believe my husband came back in less than 32hours, my EX-HUSBAND came back to me and begged me to accept him back. Dr Awase gave me reasons to live again. My life is complete and Joy filled my heart after all the pain I went through. Contact him now if you need any help. Email: dr.awasespellhome23@gmail.com or WhatsApp (‪+1 (419) 359‑4367‬) and he does a lot of spells such as Business, Promotion spell, Etc. Once again thank you Dr Awase 

HOW I GOT MY EX HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF REAL AND EFFECTIVE SPELL FROM DR Aluya My name is jessica, I never thought I will smile again, My husband left me with two kids for one year, All effort to bring him back failed I thought I'm not going to see him again not until I met a lady called Jesse who told me about a spell caster called Dr Aluya , She gave me his email address and mobile number and I contacted him and he assured me that within 48hours my husband will come back to me, In less than 48hours my husband came back started begging for forgiveness saying it is the devils work, so I'm still surprise till now about this miracle,i couldn't conceive but as soon as the spell was cast,i became pregnant and gave birth to my third child,if you need any assistance from him you can contact him via:email:{ aluya.48hoursspelltemple @gmail.com } you can also text him on whatApp:  +2348110493039  You can also contact Him through his website:   https://draluya48hoursspelltemple.webs.com/

HOW I GOT MY EX HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF REAL AND EFFECTIVE SPELL FROM DR Aluya My name is jessica, I never thought I will smile again, My husband left me with two kids for one year, All effort to bring him back failed I thought I'm not going to see him again not until I met a lady called Jesse who told me about a spell caster called Dr Aluya , She gave me his email address and mobile number and I contacted him and he assured me that within 48hours my husband will come back to me, In less than 48hours my husband came back started begging for forgiveness saying it is the devils work, so I'm still surprise till now about this miracle,i couldn't conceive but as soon as the spell was cast,i became pregnant and gave birth to my third child,if you need any assistance from him you can contact him via:email:{ aluya.48hoursspelltemple @gmail.com } you can also text him on whatApp:  +2348110493039  You can also contact Him through his website:   https://draluya48hoursspelltemple.webs.com/

Thank you sir for your genuine spells. I'm Zara Matteo by name. This is really incredible, and I have never experienced anything like this in my life. Before i met you Sir, i have tried every probable means that i could to get my husband back, but i actually came to realize that nothing was working out for me, and that my husband had developed lot of hatred for me. I thought there was no hope to reunite with my ex husband. But when i read good reviews about how DR ISIKOLO help others, I decided to message him at: +1-725-240-4536. to give it a try and i did everything that he instructed me and i Trusted in him and followed his instructions just as he have guaranteed me in 48 hours, and that was exactly when my ex called me. Sir We are more contented now than ever. Everything looks perfect and so natural! Thank you so much Sir for your authentic and indisputable spells. here again his Email: isikolosolutionhome@gmail.com You can also Whatsapp him on +1-725-240-4536. His direct page: https://isikololovetemple.com

After seeing a post on the internet saying how she was helped by Dr. Ilekhojie, I also decided to contact him for help because i had no choice all i wanted was for me to get my lover back and happiness. To my greatest surprise my lover came home on his knees that i should find a place in my heart to forgive him, I was truly astonished and shocked when my lover knelt down begging for forgiveness and for me to accept him back. I am really short of expressions, and I don't know how much to convey my appreciation to you Dr. Ilekhojie. You are a God sent to restore a broken relationship, And now i am a joyful woman. his contact details are Whatsapp number +2348147400259) or Email; (gethelp05@gmail.com)

I am so proud and happy to be out here sharing this remarkable testimony, awesome and extraordinary, I just can’t believe this now my ex Husband is really back to me on his knees begging me to take him back and he was feeling regretful and sorry for leaving me and for causing me pains after the divorce which occurred 5 Months ago. And this whole miracle happened after i contacted Dr tunde for help, I am the happiest woman today in this whole wide world. It’s a miracle and everlasting pleasure and cheerfulness for me and my family today.. I am so happy now and i don’t know how much to convey my thankfulness and appreciation to Dr tunde, contact Dr tunde if you need urgent help now because its guaranteed that he will help Email:babatundesolutioncentre1@gmail. com or you can reach him on via WhatsApp mobile number  +2348143581382

I am so proud and happy to be out here sharing this remarkable testimony, awesome and extraordinary, I just can’t believe this now my ex Husband is really back to me on his knees begging me to take him back and he was feeling regretful and sorry for leaving me and for causing me pains after the divorce which occurred 5 Months ago. And this whole miracle happened after i contacted Dr tunde for help, I am the happiest woman today in this whole wide world. It’s a miracle and everlasting pleasure and cheerfulness for me and my family today.. I am so happy now and i don’t know how much to convey my thankfulness and appreciation to Dr tunde, contact Dr tunde if you need urgent help now because its guaranteed that he will help Email:babatundesolutioncentre1@gmail. com or you can reach him on via WhatsApp mobile number  +2348143581382

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