Millainen on nykyaikainen oppimisympäristö?

Oppimisympäristö on yksinkertaisen määritelmän mukaan paikka, tila, yhteisö tai toimintatapa, joka tukee ja edistää oppimista.

Tämän yleisen määritelmän mukaan mikä tahansa konteksti voi olla oppimisympäristö, tärkeintä on se, että koulutusorganisaatiossa toiminta on pedagogisesti ja didaktisesti huolella suunniteltua.

Nykyaikainen luokka, pienryhmätila tai luentosali ei kuitenkaan voi kuitenkaan olla mikä tahansa tila, vaan sen tulee olla kokonaisuus jossa erilaiset oppimista tukevat paikat, tilat, yhteisöt, tekniset ratkaisut, välineet ja toimintatavat sulautuvat itseään korostamatta toisiinsa. 

Arkkitehtien, oppimistutkijoiden ja visionäärien tavoitteena on luoda oppimista ja opetusta tukevia kokonaisuuksia, mutta yhä edelleen oppimisympäristö käsitetään usein mekaanisesti joksikin yksittäiseksi tekijäksi, järjestelyksi tai teknologiaksi opiskelijoiden toimintaympäristössä.

Nykyään jopa yksittäinen mobiilisovellus voi olla edellä kuvatun kaltainen oppimisympäristö. Tällaisena välineenä voidaan pitää esimerkiksi suosittua  Explain Everything "älytaulusovellusta". Teknologian nopeasta kehitysvauhdista huolimatta digitaalisten sovellusten ja palveluiden pedagogisesti perusteltu hyödyntäminen opetuksen ja oppimisen tukena on edelleen vähäistä tai hyvin teknologiavetoista.

Tutkintoon johtavassa koulutuksessa oppimista ja opetusta tukeva oppimisympäristö on nykyaikaisten tilaratkaisujen, teknologisten ratkaisujen ja osaavien ammattilaisten kokonaisuus. 

Tässä blogikirjoitukessa tarkastelen sitä, kuinka akateemisessa oppimisympäristössä oppimista tukevat tilat, yhteisöt ja tekniset ratkaisut eli välineet integroituvat toisiinsa. Näkemykseni perustuvat kokemuksiini mitä olen saanut opettajankouluttajana, koulutusteknologina ja erilaisten yliopiston tilatyöryhmien jäsenenä.

Tilaratkaisujen ja kalustuksen tulee tukea oppimista

Oulun yliopistossa on saneerattu 2000-luvulla useita oppimista ja opetusta tukevia tiloja, jotka ovat herättäneet kansainvälistäkin mielenkiintoa. Tällaisia tiloja ovat mm. luentosali L2, TellUS ja normaalikoulun Ubiko. Valitettavasti melkoinen osa opetuksesta ja oppimisesta tehdään edelleen sellaisissa tiloissa joiden mitoitus, kalustus ja arkkitehtuuri eivät ole 2000-luvun modernin kouluarkkitehtuurin tasalla. 

Tilan kalustuksen tulisi olla muunneltavaa, eli sitä pitäisi pystyä mukauttamaan pedagogisten tarpeiden mukaiseksi. Nykyaikaiset oppimismenetelmät suosivat yksilö-, ryhmä- ja koko opiskelijajoukon työvaiheiden vuorottelua. Jos kalusteet on mitoitettu siten, että niitä on tilassa liikaa eikä niitä voi siirtää, opiskelijalähtöisten menetelmien hyödyntäminen hankaloituu merkittävästi.  

Tilojen seinät tulisi myös ottaa hyötykäyttöön, teräksisiä tussitauluja tulisi sijoittaa ympäri opetustilaa siten, että opiskelijaryhmät voisivat hyödyntää niitä oman työskentelynsä tukena. Ideaalitapauksissa näitä tauluja voisi hyödyntää myös videotykin heijastuspintoina. 

Kirjoittajan tavoite yliopistolle: yhteisten opetustilojen kalustuksen päivitys 2000-luvulle. 

Video1. Oulu normaalikoulun UBIKO-projektissa remontoitiin yksi solu (luokkakokonaisuus) sellaiseksi, että se tulee 2010-luvun oppimista ja opettamista. Monet ratkaisut ovat siirrettävissä myös korkea-asteen tilasuunnitteluun.

AV-tekniikka ei saa muodostaa pullonkaulaa eri työskentelymuodoille

Luentosalien ja pienryhmätilojen AV-teknologia on suurelta osin vanhentunutta eikä vastaa modernin oppimisympäristön vaatimuksia. 2000-luvun opetustilassa täytyy kyetä heijastamaan langattomasti oman älypuhelimen, tabletin, kannettavan tai muun soveltuvan laitteen sisältö isolle näytölle tai videotykille. 

Kuluttajamarkkinoilla on ollut jo vuosia myynnissä laitteita joilla yhden päätelaitteen kuvan saa langattomasti siirrettyä esim. televisioon. Yliopistollakin on näitä kotikäyttöön tarkoitettuja laitteita jo kymmeniä kappaleita käytössä (esim. AppleTV). 

Kuluttajamarkkinoille tarkoitetut laitteet ovat kuitenkin sidoksissa aina yhteen ekosysteemiin ja aiheuttavat loppukäyttäjälle helposti sekaannusta. Nykyään markkinoilla on saatavilla ammattikäyttöön tarkoitettuja laitteita joiden avulla käyttäjärjestelmien ja laitetyyppien väliset raja-aidat kyetään murtamaaan.  Omassa tiedekunnassani (Kasvatustiede) on jo käytössä muutamia vastaanottimia joihin voi langattomasti jakaa oman matkapuhelimensa, tablettinsa tai vaikkapa kannettavan näytön näyttämän sisällön. 

Langaton kuvan siirtäminen on yhdessä toimivien langattomien verkkojen kanssa keskeinen edellytys sille, että opetustiloissa voidaan siirtyä opettajajohtoisesta teknologian hyödyntämisestä oppijalähtöiseen työskentelyyn. Oppijalähtöisessä työskentelyssä on tärkeätä mahdollistaa kenen tahansa tilassa työskentelevän helppo ja intuitiviinen kytkeytyminen tilassa oleviin näyttölaitteisiin hyödyntäen osallistujien omia päätelaitteita. Tämä on mahdollista jo nyt ammattikäyttöön tarkoitetuilla välineillä. Tällaisia tuotteita ovat esim. Kramer Via Pro tai Wepresent Wipg 2000.

Oppimista tukevassa tilassa näyttöjen/heijastuspintojen määrä harkitaan pedagogisin perustein, eli esim. jos tilassa on paljon ryhmätyöskentelyä, perinteisen yhden näyttöpinnan asemesta tulisi tilassa olla useita näyttöjä eri puolilla opetustilaa. Hyvä esimerkki tällaisestä tilasta on luentosali L2, joskin sen langaton kytkeytyvyys perustuu vielä kuluttajamarkkinoille tarkoittuihin AppleTV, Chromecast ja Miracast -laitteisiin.

Tilahankkeissa AV-välineet ovat olleet näihin vuosiin saakka se kuluerä josta karsitaan ensimmäiseksi, joko olisi aika nostaa AV-välineistö sille jalustalle jolle se kuuluu?

Kirjoittajan tavoite yliopistolle: AV-varustelun uusiminen helppokäyttöiseksi ja langattoman kuvan jaon mahdollistavaksi.

Video 2. Tässä videossa Israelilainen Kramer Electronics esittelee kuinka eri laitteista pystyy jakamaan langattomasti näytön. Kyseessä on vain yksi laitevalmistaja ja video on esimerkki mahdollisuuksista.

Nykyaikaiset pilvipalvelut ovat osa oppimista

Perinteinen käsitys oppimisesta ja opettamisesta yliopistokontekstissa lienee jotain taulullekirjoittamisen ja muistiinpanojen pikakirjoittamisen väliltä. Luennoitsija saattaa jakaa kurssimateriaalit Optimassa pdf-tiedostona, mutta digitaalisaatio tai digiloikka jää usein sitten siihen. Kirjoittamisella ja lukemisella on toki paikkansa tulevaisuudessakin, mutta nykyaikaiset pilvipalvelut ja muut teknologiset ratkaisut voivat myös helpottaa sekä luennoitsijan että opiskelijan taakkaa. 

Googlen ja Microsoftin pilvipalvelut ovat muutamassa vuodessa yleistyneet huikeata vauhtia. Oulun kaupungin Ritaharjun koulussa jo alkuopetuksessa luodaan ensimmäinen Powerpoint -esitys Microsoftin O365 -palveluun. Meille pyrkivät opiskelijat ovat usein käyttäneet pilvipalveluita jo koulussa tai vapaa-aikanaan.

Perinteinen käsitys näistä pilvipalveluista on se, että sähköpostin ohella voi käyttää toimisto-ohjelmia www-selaimen välityksellä. Oppimisen ja opettamisen näkökulmasta nämä pilvipalvelut tarjoavat kuitenkin paljon enemmän, Microsoftin jalokivi on OneNote Classroom Notebook (jota myös Oulun yliopiston henkilökunta voi käyttää opetuksessaan) kun taas Googlen timantti on Google Classroom (jota henkilökuntamme voi ryhtyä käyttämään vuoden 2016 aikana). Molemmat välineet on tarkoitettu oppimisen ja opettamisen alustoiksi, helpottamaan opettajan ja opiskelijan työtä. Onenoten avulla opiskelija voi tehdä muistiinpanoja, koostaa oppimateriaaleja kun taas Google Classroomin avulla koko kurssin kommunikaatio tehtävänpalautuksineen voidaan hoitaa helposti ja yksinkertaisesti.  

Sekä Microsoft että Google ovat tehneet pilvipalveluiden käytöstä kätevää, sillä opiskelijat ja opettajat voivat ladata tarvittavat ohjelmistot omiin laitteisiinsa jolloin käyttäkokemus on parempi ja monipuolisempi kuin pelkillä www-pohjaisilla versioilla. Koska palveluita voi käyttää melkein millä tahansa laitteella, ne integroituvat erinomaisella tavalla erilaisin opetus- ja oppimistilanteisiin.  Näistä ja muista pilvipalveluista lisää myöhemmissä blogikirjoituksissa. 

Kirjoittajan tavoite yliopistolle: Henkilökunta ottaa Google Classroom tai Onenote Classroom Notebook -työkaluja käyttöön omassa opetuksessaan.


Video 3. Onenote Classroom Notebook add-in video kuvaa kuinka opettaja voi hallinnoida opiskelijoita, opiskelijoiden muistikirjoja ja muita kurssiin liittyviä asioita.

Video 4. Google Classroom työkalun esittelyvideo. Tämän välineen avulla voit helposti jakaa ja tarkista tehtäviä sekä olla vuorovaikutuksessa opiskelijoiden kanssa.

Tietoa kirjoittajasta:

Jari Laru, KT, yliopistonlehtori, teknologiatuettu oppiminen ja opetus. Oppimisen- ja koulutusteknologian tutkimusyksikkö (LET), Kasvatustieteiden tiedekunta. Laru toimii tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogisen opetuskäytön kehittämistyöryhmän puheenjohtajana. Hän on tehnyt väitöskirjansa aiheeta "opiskelun tukeminen yhteisöllisten skriptien ja mobiililaitteiden avulla". IT-Kouluttajat ry valitsi Larun vuoden 2014 tieto- ja viestintätekniikan opettajaksi (korkea-aste). 

Lisätietoja:

Last updated: 24.3.2016

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Hei Jari, tsekkaappas tämä videoesittely, jossa näytetään kiinalaisten keksintö Rubikin kuution kokoinen projektori, johon voidaan peilata miltä laitteelta tahansa. Projektori itsessään on minitietokone jossa on Chrome ja muita appeja valmiiksi asennettuna. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdfybaN6LCIt. Heli Hämäläinen

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