Sulavassa ikiroudassa piilee terveysriski

Ikirouta kuulostaa sanana ikuiselta, mutta ilmaston lämmetessä senkin pintakerrokset ovat alkaneet sulaa. Arktisilla rannikkoseuduilla on paljon asutusta, jossa muutokset jo näkyvät. Rakennusten, teiden ja rantavallien sortumiset siirtävät kyliä ja kaupunkeja kauemmaksi rannasta turvallisimmille paikoille. Sulana pitkään pysyvä meri vaikuttaa yhteisöjen jokapäiväiseen elämään, kalastamiseen ja metsästämiseen esimerkiksi silloin, kun rannikkoalueilla joet ja järvet kuivuvat, tai vesi täyttää alavia maita. Lisäksi kulkeminen vaikeutuu, kun jää ei enää peitä rannikkoja ja jokia.

Euroopan Unionin viisivuotinen Nunataryuk-tutkimushanke pyrkii usean tieteenalan yhteistyönä hakemaan vastauksia ikiroudan sulamisen vaikutuksiin Venäjällä, Kanadassa, Grönlannissa ja Huippuvuorilla, sekä siihen, miten yhteisöt voivat näihin muutoksiin parhaiten varautua. Mittavassa hankkeessa on mukana tutkimusorganisaatioita kahdestatoista eri maasta. Oma tutkimusryhmämme Oulun yliopistossa keskittyy ikiroudan sulamisen aiheuttamiin terveysvaikutuksiin ja -riskeihin ihmisten ja eläinten terveydelle.

Ensimmäisen tutkimusvuoden aikana olemme muun muassa kartoittaneet ihmisen altistumista ympäristökemikaaleille, infektiotautien esiintymistä sekä eläinten välittämiä tauteja arktisilla alueilla.

Ikiroutaan on myös haudattu pernaruttoon kuolleita eläimiä, ja maaperän sulaessa tauti saattaa lähteä leviämään uudelleen. Pyrimme yhdessä muiden tutkijoiden kanssa arvioimaan pernaruton vapautumiseen ja kulkeutumiseen liittyviä tekijöitä. Tiedämme, että pernaruton itiöt voivat säilyä infektiokykyisinä jopa sata vuotta. Ihminen voi saada taudin suorasta kontaktista bakteerin sairastuttamaan eläimeen tai johonkin siitä valmistettuun tuotteeseen.

Ilmaston lämpötilalla ja ilmankosteudella on myös yhteys esimerkiksi punkin levittämiin tauteihin ja jänisruttoon. Uusia tauteja voi vieraslajien leviämisen myötä vielä paljastua. Ilmaston lämpeneminen vaikuttaa tautien leviämiseen myös välillisesti esimerkiksi ihmisten ja eläinten liikkumisen ja muuttoliikkeen myötä.

Yksi mielenkiintomme kohde on, mitä kemikaaleja ikirouta pitää sisällään. Ainakin elohopeaa, mutta myös muita terveydelle haitallisia ympäristökemikaaleja voi löytyä. Kahden ensimmäisen vuoden aikana keräämme näytteet ja teemme pitoisuusmääritykset, minkä jälkeen voimme arvioida riskiä eläinten ja ihmisten terveydelle.

Ympäristön ja sen myötä perinteisen elämänmuodon ja elinkeinojen nopea muuttuminen vaikuttaa ihmisten elämään kokonaisvaltaisesti lisäten epävarmuutta ja huolta tulevaisuudesta. Eräs kiinnostuksen kohteemme onkin se, miten ikiroudan sulaminen vaikuttaa ihmisten mielenterveyteen. Erityisryhmänä tässä ovat syrjäytymis- ja itsemurhavaarassa olevat alkuperäiskansojen nuoret miehet.

Ilmasto muuttuu arktisilla alueilla muuta maapalloa nopeammin, mikä asettaa haasteita sekä tutkijoille että paikalliselle väestölle. Tavoitteenamme on, että Nunataruyk-tutkimushankkeen tulosten myötä sekä viranomaiset että paikalliset ihmiset saavat tietoa oman alueensa tilanteesta ja voivat paremmin varautua ikiroudan sulamisen riskeihin.

 

Linkkejä tutkimusartikkeleihin:

Abass, K., Emelyanova, A. & Rautio, A. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2018) 25: 28834. Temporal trends of contaminants in Arctic human populations: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2936-8

Waits, A., Emelyanova, A., Oksanen, A., Abass, K., & Rautio, A. Environ Int (2018) 121: 703. Human infectious diseases and the changing climate in the Arctic https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.042

 

Last updated: 24.10.2018

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