Analysis of respiratory function

Analysis of respiratory function

Humans mainly breathe through their nose, i.e. through the upper airways. More than 30% of adults suffer from chronic functional disorders of upper airways and the number is constantly increasing. Due to this global problem several international and national alliances and programs (e.g. WHO’s GARD: Global Alliance against Respiratory Diseases, ARIA: Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) have been established. They conclude that most of the respiratory diseases are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Symptoms of upper airways are primarily connected to the asthma in epidemiologic studies. It has also been proposed that increased respiratory work can burden the heart and blood vessels and it can be in connection to autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, through systemic inflammation. In addition to this, dysfunction of upper airways can cause or worsen sleep apnea.

Allergic rhinitis is considered to be an immuno-neuronal disorder, but little is known about the part played by the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the most important system regulating the function of the upper airways changing the respiratory resistance dynamically. The velocity of those changes can contain important information for the analysis of the upper airway function. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an indirect noninvasive way to assess autonomic nervous system modulation. Previously, it has not been possible to study these fast occurring changes due to lack of appropriate measuring devices. The novel device developed by our research group measures continuously airflow pressure with a catheter inserted into the nose and the airflow with the calibrated respiratory belts. Respiratory resistance of upper airways as a continuous signal is derived from these signals by adapting a parametric model to the measured signals with an adaptive signal processing technique. A novel respiratory belt calibration method was developed that dramatically improved estimation of the airflow signal.

To our knowledge, this is the first time that it is possible to estimate from the concurrent continuous nasal airflow resistance and HRV parameters:  are there associations between the dynamic reactions of nasal airflow resistance and HRV during the allergic reaction.

The proposed method opens entirely new possibilities to assess accurately concomitant changes in non-stationary nasal function and ANS. This could increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostics and assessment of the effect of nasal treatments and desensitization. We expect that the unique techniques for estimating the dynamic changes in the upper airway resistance and the ANS function will yield opportunities for new diagnostic methods for important respiratory diseases.


Selected References

Seppänen Tiina M., Alho Olli-Pekka, Vakkala Merja, Alahuhta Seppo, Seppänen Tapio. Continuous Postoperative Respiratory Monitoring with Calibrated Respiratory Effort Belts: Pilot Study. Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Accepted.

Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka, Seppänen Tapio. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test. Journal of Healthcare Engineering. Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1245418, 9 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1245418

Seppänen Tiina M., Alho Olli-Pekka, Vakkala Merja, Alahuhta Seppo, Seppänen Tapio. Respiratory Effort Belts in Postoperative Respiratory Monitoring: Pilot Study with Different Patients. Proc. of the 9th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC 2016) - Volume 5: HEALTHINF, Rome, Italy, Feb 21.-23. (2016) pp. 76-82

Seppänen Tiina M, Kananen Janne, Noponen Kai, Alho Olli-Pekka, Seppänen Tapio. Accurate Measurement of Respiratory Airflow Waveforms Using Depth Data. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Milan, Italy, August 25.-29. (2015) pp. 7857-7860. DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7320213

Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka, Seppänen Tapio. Concomitant Dynamic Changes in Autonomic Nervous System Function and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Allergen Provocation. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Milan, Italy, August 25.-29. (2015) pp. 3339-3342. DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319107

Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka, Seppänen Tapio. Dynamic Changes of Nasal Airflow Resistance during Provocation with Birch Pollen Allergen. Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, Communications in Computer and Information Science (2014) 452: 225-239

Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka, Seppänen Tapio. Reducing the Airflow Waveform Distortions from Breathing Style and Body Position with Improved Calibration of Respiratory Effort Belts. Biomedical Engineering Online (2013) 12:97

Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka, Laajala Aleksi, Rahkola Elina, Seppänen Tapio. Continuous Nasal Airflow Resistance during Birch Pollen Provocation Test. Proc. of BIOSIGNALS 2013 - 6th International Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing, Barcelona, Spain 2013 Feb 11.-14. (2013) pp. 5-10

Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka, Koskinen Miika, Seppänen Tapio. Improved Calibration Method of Respiratory Belts by Extension of Multiple Linear Regression. Proc. of 5th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering, Budapest, Hungary, 2011 Sep 14.-18. (2012) 37:161-164

Seppänen Tapio, Koskinen Miika, Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka. Addendum to ’Continuous Assessment of Nasal Airflow Resistance by Adaptive Modeling’ – Technical Repeatability. Physiol. Meas. (2010) 31:1547-1551

Seppänen Tapio, Koskinen Miika, Seppänen Tiina M, Alho Olli-Pekka. Continuous Assessment of Nasal Airflow Resistance by Adaptive Modeling. Physiol. Meas. (2009) 30:1197-1209

Last updated: 21.11.2016