Kutsupuhujat / Keynote speakers

Kutsupuhujat ovat / Our invited speakers are:

Juha Jalkanen (Jyväskylän yliopisto): Soveltava kielitiede ja design-perustainen tutkimus - teorian ja käytännön rajapinnalla

Soveltava kielitiede pyrkii ratkaisemaan tavalla tai toisella kieleen sidoksissa olevia yksilön tai yhteisön ongelmia, jotka ovat usein luonteeltaan monitahoisia ja kiperiä. Tällaisessa tutkimuksessa liikutaan tiiviisti teorian ja käytännön rajapinnalla. Soveltavat kielentutkijat ovatkin alkaneet etsiä menetelmällisiä ratkaisuja, jotka mahdollistavat entistä tiiviimmän kytkennän teorian ja käytännön välillä.

Yksi soveltavan kielitieteen kentälläkin – erityisesti kielen oppimisen ja opettamisen tutkimuksessa – jalansijaa saaneista teorian ja käytännön väliseen vuoropuheluun tähtäävistä menetelmällisistä suuntauksista on design-perustainen tutkimus. Sen ytimessä on syklinen interventio, jonka avulla esimerkiksi oppimisprosessia tarkastellaan. Yksi syy design-perustaisen tutkimuksen herättämään kiinnostukseen on varmastikin se, että se mahdollistaa empirian ja teorian yhdistämisen tavalla, joka tarjoaa tietoa siitä, miten ja miksi tietyt prosessit toimivat käytännössä.

Design-perustainen tutkimus on syntynyt vastavoimana tarkkaan kontrolloiduille laboratoriotutkimuksille, joissa muuttujia on vähän ja kontekstin vaikutus pyritään minimoimaan. Todelliseen kontekstiin sijoittuvalla tutkimuksella oli alun perin kaksi tehtävää: lisätä teoreettista ymmärrystä ja kehittää käytännön toimintaa intervention avulla (Design-Based Research Collective, 2003). Tutkimuksessa voidaan siis esimerkiksi kehittää oppimisympäristöä, joka nojaa tiettyihin teorioihin, ja toisaalta testata hypoteeseja kehitteillä olevassa ympäristössä. Tutkimussuuntaus on kuitenkin saanut osakseen paljon kritiikkiä ja on muun muassa kysytty, miten se eroaa toimintatutkimuksesta (Wang & Hannafin, 2005).

Esityksessäni tarkastelen design-perustaista tutkimusta erityisesti soveltavan kielitieteen näkökulmasta. Otan esiin tutkimuksen arjesta nousevia kriittisiä näkökulmia, jotka liittyvät muun muassa eettisiin ja epistemologisiin kysymyksiin. Tutkimuskohteita ja menetelmällisiä ratkaisuja kuvaamalla valotan sitä, miten design-perustainen tutkimus sopii yhteen soveltavan kielitieteen viimeaikaisten kehityskulkujen (ks. esim. Hellermann 2015) kanssa ja mitä haasteita se toisaalta tuo mukanaan.

Lähteet

The Design-Based Research Collective. 2003. Design-Based Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Educational Inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32 (1), 5-8.

Hellermann, J. 2015 (Ed.). Special Issue: Definitions for Applied Linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 36 (4).

Wang, F. & Hannafin, M. J. 2005. Design-Based Research and Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53 (4), 5–23.

 

Malene Charlotte Larsen (Aalborg Universitet):  Nexus Analysis as a framework for Social Media Studies

For more than a decade, social media have played a significant role in the everyday lives of young people; as a way of communicating, practicing friendships and constructing identity. Based on 15 years of research within this field, associate professor Malene Charlotte Larsen from Aalborg University, Denmark, will be discussing how Nexus Analysis (NA) (Scollon & Scollon, 2004) can be a fruitful framework for the study of online social interactions.

Nexus analysis distinguishes itself from other discourse analytic approaches by focusing on central mediated actions carried out by social actors within a loosely tied ‘nexus of practice’ (rather than focusing solely on discourse). How do we methodologically go about analysing young people’s use of social media as a nexus of practice where different mediated actions, cultural artefacts and cycles of discourses intersect? How can we understand and analyse all the “non-language stuff” on social media such as algorithms, liking, tagging and photo sharing from a nexus analytical point of view? And how can concepts from Mediated Discourse Analysis (MDA) (Scollon 2001a, 2001b) and Nexus Analysis be used to conceptualise young people’s practices of maintaining friendships and constructing identity online? 

Ron Scollon did not especially care for social media and the development in the media landscape in general, but – as this plenary lecture will argue – with MDA and NA he developed a methodological and theoretical framework quite suitable for empirical studies of interactions taking place on sites and apps such as Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat (Larsen & Raudaskoski, 2018). The lecture proposes a refinement of nexus analysis and thereby presents a framework for the study of online social practices, that takes into account that these practices are constituted multimodally by participants’ communicative performances.

References

Larsen, M. C., & Raudaskoski, P. (2018). Nexus Analysis as a Framework for Internet Studies. In J. Hunsinger, L. Klastrup, & M. M. Allen (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Internet Research (pp. 1–20).

Scollon, R. (2001a) Action and Text: Towards an integrated understanding of the place of text in social (inter)action, mediated discourse analysis and the problem of social action. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 139–183). London: Sage Publications.

Scollon, R. (2001b) Mediated discourse: The Nexus of Practice. London; New York: Routledge.

Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. W. (2004). Nexus Analysis: Discourse and the Emerging Internet. London; New York: Routledge.

 

Ray Wilkinson (University of Sheffield): Atypical Interaction: The turn to conversation in the linguistic analysis of communication disorders

In keeping with the conference theme of ‘methodological turns in applied language studies’, in this talk I will discuss recent research applying the methodology and findings of conversation analysis (Clift, 2016) to the investigation of communication disorders, a field now usually referred to as ‘atypical interaction’ (Wilkinson, Rae & Rasmussen, in press).  Communication disorders are impairments of speech, language or communication which are linked to diagnosed conditions such as dementia, autism or motor neurone disease. Traditionally, approaches to the analysis of communication disorders have been primarily medical, neurological or psychological in nature. The findings these approaches produce are based largely on testing within institutional contexts (such as hospitals or schools) and are typically quantitative in nature. Over the last two decades, however, the primarily qualitative approach of conversation analysis (CA), with its focus on talk and other aspects of conduct in naturally occurring social interaction, has provided a markedly different method for investigating communication disorders.   

Here I discuss a key aspect of what makes these interactions ‘atypical’, i.e. how the talk of the person with the communication disorder may be seen to not adhere to the normative conventions (Robinson, 2016) that ‘typical’ communicators follow, and also how in this situation interactional participants may recurrently treat this as a particular form of problem. More generally, I highlight some of the analytic consequences of using a CA approach compared to more traditional approaches within this area, specifically: (1) the shift from elicited test data (and the theoretical perspectives underpinning the testing) to conversation data; (2) the shift in analytical focus from that of the test/tester to the participants’ own interactional conduct and orientations; and  (3) the shift from the test/tester’s notion of error, omission or inappropriacy to the participants’ treatment of some aspect of the interaction as a ‘trouble’ or ‘problem’.                          

References:

Clift, R.(2016) Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, J. D. (2016) Accountability in social interaction. In: J. D. Robinson (Ed.) Accountability in Social Interaction.  (Pp. 1-44). New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilkinson, R., Rae, J.P. & Rasmussen, G. (Eds.) (in press) Atypical Interaction: The Impact of Communicative Impairments within Everyday Talk. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 

 

Viimeksi päivitetty: 25.8.2019