C-Business is a research project on communities technical networks - their ownership, governance and operation. It is funded by TEKES and done in cooperation with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Aalto University School of Science and Technology.


Objective of this research is to investigate the pros and cons of different ownership and governance (O&G) models of communities’ technical networks. Technical networks include at least transport networks and nodes, water and sewage networks, heating, electricity and energy, and telecommunications. Objective is to define the basic O&G types and their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. During this research the current state of the technical networks is defined and analyzed and possible new business potentials are identified. Project also analyses value creation to different stakeholders (consumer, supplier, owner, society…) in different business models. The project also takes account of financial and financing point of views by defining different financing mechanisms, money flows and allocation of expenses. During the project also the business and socio-economical risks of different O&G models are assessed. Best practices and benchmark networks are found from private sector operation but also from other countries. The first phase of the project is carried out in Finland, where practically all the O&G model variants are employed already today.


Press release in Finnish.



30.3.2011 klo 12-17 Seminaari "Infraomaisuuden hallinta - nykytila, haasteet ja mahdollisuudet?", VTT, Vuorimiehentie 5, Espoo & Oulun yliopisto IT115, Rakentajantie 3, Oulu.

8.4.2010 ja 9.4.2010 klo 9-13 Workshop "Kuntien infraomaisuuden tulevaisuus?", Oulussa ja Espoossa.



Pakkala P. and Talvitie A. (2010). 'Finland's new research on ownership & governance models for the technical networks of Municipalities'. European Road Review, No. 16, pp. 39-42.

Herrala M. and Haapasalo H. (2010). 'From Social Responsibility and Environmental Management to Sustainable Business'. SB10 Finland Sustainable Community -buildingSMART Conference, Espoo, Finland, 22-24.9.2010.

Pakkala P. and Talvitie A. (2010). 'Restructuring Patterns of Municipal Ownership for Technical Infrastructure Networks in Finland'. World Conference on Transport Research, Lisbon, Portugal, 11.-15.7.2010.

Pakkala P., Talvitie A. and Leviäkangas P.  (2010). 'Ownership and management models for infrastructure networks'. 16th International Road Federation Word Meeting, Lisbon, Portugal, 25.-28.5.2010.

Herrala M. (2010). 'Kunnallistekniikka - kenen bisnes?'. Kuntatekniikka 1/2010.

Herrala M., Belt P., Haapasalo H. & Pakkala P. [forthcoming]. 'Organising infrastructure networks – Two descriptive case studies'. International Journal of Services, Economics and Management.


Contact info

The responsible leader of the project:

Professor Harri Haapasalo

phone: +358 8 553 2931, +358 40 518 2275

e-mail: harri.haapasalo (at) oulu.fi

Project researcher

M.Sc. (Tech.) Maila Herrala

phone: +358 400 175142

e-mail: maila.herrala (at) oulu.fi



This project belongs to the TEKES Sustainable Community program


Last updated: 27.9.2012