Nikkinen Juha

Research Group of Medical Physics in Radiotherapy


Research unit: Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology (MIPT)


Group leader

Juha Nikkinen, PhD, Adjunct Professor

Chief Physicist, Department of Radiotherapy, Oulu University Hospital
Adjunt Professor of Medical Physics, Research unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology (MIPT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu

What do we do

Radiotherapy (or radiation therapy) is a cancer treatment using high-enerbey ionizing radiation to control and kill malignant cancer cells. Ionizing radiation is delivered either externally, most commonly with linear accelerators, or internally, e.g. in brachytherapy. The patient's individual physiology and anatomy affect not only to the physical aspects of the dose delivery but also to the treatment response. Thus, individually tailored radiotherapy allows more efficient and safer treatments.

Nikkinen group's main research topics are medical physics, biophysics and technical methodology in radiotherapy. The group aims to develop methods supporting individually tailored radiotherapy. More specifically, Nikkinen group's focus areas are monitoring treatment response during radiotherapy, and development of external radiotherapy.

Monitoring treatment response during radiotheraphy

Group's main research focus is monitoring the individuals' response to external radiotherapy using functional MR and NIRS imaging methods. Using MR encephalography, group's aim is to monitor treatment related changes in glymphatic mechanisms in brain tumor patients. This novel imaging method allows us to monitor individual's dose response in tomor area and also in healthy brain tissues during radiotherapy course. This method may also be useful to predict microscopic brain tumor areas allowing to treat the disease more efficiently. In the Academy of Finland project "Tailored radiotherapy using novel optics-based technology", group's goal is to provide a new method for monitoring radiotherapy response in brain tumors and healthy tissues during irradiation. The changes in cerebral hemodynamics and concentration of the reactive oxygen radicals correlate with the dose and dose rate of radiotherapy. Thus, measuring cerebral dynamics and free water and oxygen radicals during irradiation using fNIRS technology could improve the effectiveness and safety of the radiation therapy.

Development of external radiotherapy

New linear accelerators offer the possibility to intensity modulated treatmens (IMRT), image guided treatments (IGRT), volumetric modulated arc treatments (VMAT), respiratory gated treatments as well as treatments with high dose rate using unflattened fields (FFF). Introduction of these technologies and their applicability on the treatment of different target areas is important research topic in the field of radiation oncology. Research on dosimetry with different methods (ionization chambers, RPL, film, gel), imaging prior and during the irradiation, and utilizing the obtained information in the dose planning are needed. Recently, group's research focus has been on external and internal prostate radiation therapy, where the effects of the variation of prostate location and shape on the prostate actual dose distribution are refined. We have also studied the need of adaptive dose planning and the possibility to use gel between prostate and rectum protection. These results have been applied in our extreme hypofractionated prostate treatments. Film dosimetry has been utilized in planning of SBRT treatment protocols together with 4D thorax fantom.


Our team

Group leader

  • Juha Nikkinen, PhD, Adjunct Professor

Post-Doctoral Researchers

  • Heikkilä Vesa-Pekka, PhD
  • Lehtiö Kaisa, MD, PhD
  • Karhula Sakari, PhD


  • Hietala Henna, PhL
  • Karppinen Piia, MSc
  • Kurttila Maria, PhL
  • Lehto Joonas, MD
  • Seppänen Sini, PhL
  • Karthikeyan Priya, MSc
  • Björnholm Lassi, MD, MSc

Research assistants

  • Pikkarainen Niklas, MSc
  • Honka Ulriika, BSc

Our main collaborators

  • Department of Urology, Oulu University Hospital
  • Teemu Myllylä group, University of Oulu, MIPT
  • Vesa Kiviniemi group, University of Oulu, MIPT
  • Miika Nieminen group, University of Oulu, MIPT
  • Juha Veijola group, University of Oulu, Research unit of Neuroscience
  • Department of Physics/Biophysics, University of Oulu


How to find us

If you are interested in collaborating with or working in the research group, contact juha.nikkinen[at]

Last updated: 2.4.2020