Laboratory facilities

Research devices and analytic instruments available in the Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

Thermal analysis

  • Netzsch STA 449 F3 Jupiter. Simultaneous mass and modulated heat difference measurement with optional mass spectrometer gas analysis, modulated heating up to 2000°C temperature. The device was purchased in 2011.
  • Netzsch STA 409 PC Luxx and Netzsch QMS 403 C quadrupole mass spectrometer. Simultaneous mass and heat difference measurement with optional mass spectrometer gas analysis up to 1500°C temperature. The device was purchased in 2003.
  • TA Instruments SDT 2960. Simultaneous mass and temperature difference measurement up to 1500°C. Year 1996.
  • Optical dilatometer. Dimensional change measurement up to 1500°C temperature.
  • BW-tek voyage Confocal Raman in olympus BX51 microscope. QImaging MicroPublisher 3.3RTV camera. Raman spectrum and dimensional measurement with high temperature stage from linkam up to 1500°C.


Reduction metallurgy


  • TGA; Mass measurement in reducing atmosphere 1500°C
  • Blast furnace gas phase simulator with entech furnace. Mass measurement in reducing CO,CO2,N2,H2,H2O,K,S, atm 1800°C
  • Pellet furnace 1000/80 entech. Evolved Gas Analysis,CO,CO2,H2,H2O, measurement in reducing atmosphere 1300°C
  • High temperature viscometer; Rotational viscosity measurement 1700°C


Other High Temperature devices


  • Entech Thermal Gradient furnace 1800°C
  • Nabertherm Chamber furnace 150x150x300mm 1800°C
  • Pressure furnace 10 bar,1500°C
  • Microwave oven for research.
  • MW-HS-06 High temperature microwave reactor


Other devices and tools


  • Watermodels; The models visualize phenomenon taking place inside a converter and ladle like steel / slag flow and wearing of refractory materials.
  • Briquetting machine. Compacting fine metallurgical particles and re-feeding them back to process. Maximum pressure is 210 bar/briquette and vibration 60 Hz. Briquette size is 50mm in diameter and 100mm in height.
  • Inclusion electrolytic extraction. Potentiostat Biologic SP-150 and self-made cell is used in extraction. Inclusions is then studied separately with FESEM, particle size analyzer etc.
  • Termodynamic calculation programs; HSC, Chemsage and Fact Sage programs are for thermodynamic equilibrium calculations.
  • Microscopes; An Olympus polarizing microscope BX51P with micropublisher 5.0RTV camera and Olympus research stereomicroscope SZX9 with DP-12 camera. The microscopes were purchased in 2001.
  • Materialographic surface preparation of solid materials; Struers Epovac vacuum impregnation equipment. Grinding and polishing is done with Struers LaboForce-1 and LabPol-6. The ready samples go through ultrasonic cleaning before use. The devices were purchased in 2002.


Nearby available facilities

  • Within the University of Oulu:
    The Micromeritics ASAP 2020 Gas sorption analyzer, measures surface area and determinates pore size distribution. A high speed camera Hisis2002. An AAS Perkin Elmer 600 and 4100. A multi-wavelength particle size analyzer, Beckman coulter LS 13320.

    Center of Microscopy and Nanotechnology (CMNT) -within the University of Oulu:
    The EOL facilities are based on the use of seven instruments: EFTEM, XPS, FESEM, STEM, EPMA, XRD and XRF. They provide three basic kinds of information: images, chemical analyses and crystal structures.

    Trace element laboratory -within the University of Oulu:
    Plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES, ICP-AES) and plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These equipment provide chemical analyses of difficult samples.
  • At SSAB in Raahe Works: There is for example XRF, XRD, OES and SEM
  • At Outokumpu Stainless in Tornio Works: There is for example XRF, OES and SEM.

Last updated: 19.3.2019