• Aula M, Mäkinen A, Leppänen A, Huttula M & Fabritius T
    Optical Emission Analysis of Slag Surface Conditions and Furnace Atmosphere during Different Process Stages in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). - ISIJ International 55 (8), 1702-1710
  • Gornostayev S, Heikkinen E-P, Heino J & Fabritius T
    Fe-Si particles on the surface of blast furnace coke. International journal of minerals, metallurgy and materials. Vol. 22. 2015. No. 7. pp. 697-703.
  • Heikkilä A, Pussinen J, Mattila O & Fabritius T
    About electrical properties of chromite pellets - Effect of reduction degree. - Steel research international 86 (2), 121-128
  • Iljana M, Kemppainen A, Paananen T, Mattila O, Pisilä E, Kondrakov M & Fabritius T
    Effect of adding limestone on the metallurgical properties of iron ore pellets. - International journal of mineral processing 141, 34-43.
  • Kemppainen A,  Ohno Ko-ichiro, Iljana M, Mattila O, Heikkinen E-P, Paananen T, Maeda T, Kunitomo K &  Fabritius T
    Softening behaviors of acid and olivine fluxed iron ore pellets in the cohesive zone of a blast furnace. - ISIJ International 55 (10) 
  • Kuokkanen V, Kuokkanen T, Rämö J, Lassi U & Roininen J
    Removal of phosphate from wastewaters for further utilization using electrocoagulation with hybrid electrodes - techno-economic studies, Journal of Water Process Engineering (2015), pp. 50-57
  • Karna A, Jarvinen M & Fabritius T
    CFD Modeling of a Supersonic Top Blown Lance in a CAS-OB Process: Development of Gas Heat and Mass Transfer Correlation, Steel research int. 86 (2015) No. 11, 1370-1378
  • Omran M, Fabritius T & Mattila R
    Thermally assisted liberation of high phosphorus oolitic iron ore: A comparison between microwave and conventional furnaces. - Powder Technology 269, 7–14
  • Omran M, Fabritius T, Abdel-Khalek N, Gornostayev S & Elmahdy A
    Improvement of phosphorus removal from high phosphorus iron ore using combined microwave pretreatment and ultrasonic treatment. Separation and Purification Technology, 156, 2015, pp. 724-737.
  • Omran M, Fabritius T, Elmahdyb A, Abdel-Khalekb N, El-Arefc M & and lmanawic A
    XPS and FTIR Spectroscopic Study on Microwave Treated High Phosphorus Iron Ore, Applied Surface Science (2015) 345, pp. 127-140.
  • Peltosaari O, Tanskanen P, Heikkinen E-P & Fabritius T
    Alpha - Gamma - Beta -phase transformation of spodumene with hybrid microwave and conventional furnaces. Minerals Engineering. Vol. 82. 2015. s. 54-60.
  • Sipola T, Alatarvas T, Perämäki P & Fabritius T
    Deter,omatopm of alloying and impurity elements from matrix and inclusions from a process sample of a double stainless steel. ISIJ International, 2015, Vol. 56, No. 8
  • Sipola T, Alatarvas T, Heikkinen E-P & Fabritius T
    Determination of alloying elements Ti, Nb, Mn, Ni and Cr in double stabilized ferritic stainless steel process sample using an electrolytic extraction method and separate analysis of inclusions. Metallurgical and materials transactions B. Vol. 46B. 2015. No. 4. s. 1775-1781.
  • Sulasalmi P, Visuri V-V, Kärnä A & Fabritius T
    Sulasalmi P, Visuri V-V, Kärnä A & Fabritius T (2015) Simulation of the Effect of Steel Flow Velocity on Slag Droplet Distribution and Interfacial Area Between Steel and Slag, Steel Research International 86(3): 212-222, 2015.



  • Aula M, Leppänen A, Roininen J, Heikkinen E-P, Vallo K, Fabritius T & Huttula M
    Characterization of process conditions in industrial stainless steelmaking electric arc furnace using optical emission spectrum measurements. Metallurgical and materials transactions B. Vol. 45. 2014. No. 3. s. 839-849.
  • Aula M, Mäkinen T & Fabritius T
    "Analysis of Arc Emission Spectra of Stainless Steel Electric Arc Furnace Slag Affected by Fluctuating Arc Voltage" Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 26 - 32, 2014.
  • Gornostayev S, Heino J, Kokkonen T, Makkonen H, Huttunen S & Fabritius T
    On textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, Accepted May 2014.
  • Haapakangas J, Uusitalo J, Mattila O, Gornostayev S, Fabritius T & Porter D
    The hot strength of industrial cokes - Evaluation of coke properties that affect its high-temperature strength, Steel Research International, 85(2014). DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300450.
  • Heikkilä A, Pussinen J, Mattila O & Fabritius T
    About electrical properties of chromite pellets - Effect of reduction degree, Steel Research International, 85(2014). DOI: 10.1002/srin.201400023.
  • Hooey L, Riesbeck J, Wikström J-O & Björkman B
    Role of ferrous raw materials in the energy efficiency of integrated steelmaking. - ISIJ International 54 (3), 596-604
  • Illikainen M, Tanskanen P, Kinnunen P, Körkkö M, Peltosaari O, Wigren V, Österbacka J, Talling B & Niinimäki J
    Reactivity and self-hardening of fly ash from the fluidized bed combustion of wood and peat. Fuel 135 (2014) 69-75.
  • Järvinen M, Kärnä A, Visuri V-V, Sulasalmi P, Heikkinen E-P, Pääskylä K, De Blasio C, Ollila S & Fabritius T
    "A Novel Approach for Numerical Modeling of the CAS-OB Process: Process Model for the Heat-Up Stage", ISIJ International, Vol. 54, No. 10, pp. 2263-2272, 2014.
  • Kemppainen A, Alatarvas T, Iljana M, Haapakangas J, Mattila O, Paananen T & Fabritius T
    Water-gas shift reaction in an olivine pellet layer in the upper part of blast furnace shaft. ISIJ International Vol. 54 (2014) No. 4 p. 801-809.
  • Kemppainen A, Iljana M, Heikkinen E-P, Paananen T, Mattila O & Fabritius T
    Reduction behaviour of cold-bonded blast furnace briquettes under simulated blast furnace conditions. ISIJ International (2014) Vol. 54, No. 7. p. 1539-1545.
  • Omran M, Fabritius T & Mattila R
    Thermally assisted liberation of high phosphorus oolitic iron ore: A comparison between microwave and conventional furnaces, Powder Technology 269 (2015) 7–14.
  • Omran M, Fabritius T, Abdel-Khalek N, El-Aref M, Elmanawi A, Nasr M & Elmahdy A
    Microwave Assisted Liberation of High Phosphorus Oolitic Iron Ore, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2014, 2, 414-427.
  • Omran M, Fabritius T, Abdel-Khalek N & Elmahdy A
    Effect of microwave pre-treatment on the magnetic properties of iron ore and its implications on magnetic separation, Separation and purification technology 136 (2014) 223–232.
  • Suopajärvi H, Pongrácz E & Fabritius T
    Bioreducer use in Finnish blast furnace ironmaking – Analysis of CO2 emission reduction potential and mitigation cost. Applied Energy, Vol. 124, p. 82-93, July 2014





  • Gornostayev S, Fabritius T, Kerkkonen O & Härkki J
    Fe-Si droplets and associated graphite on blast furnace coke.  International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials 19, 6,  478-482.
  • Iljana M, Mattila O, Alatarvas T, Visuri V-V, Kurikkala J, Paananen T & Fabritius T
    Dynamic and Isothermal Reduction Swelling Behaviour of Olivine and Acid Iron Ore Pellets under Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions. ISIJ International, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1257-1265.
  • Juuti T, Karjalainen P & Heikkinen E-P
    Precipitation of Si and its influence on mechanical properties of type 441 stainless steel. Advanced Materials Research. Vol. 409. 2012. s.690-695
  • Kemppainen A, Mattila O, Heikkinen E-P, Paananen T & Fabritius T
    Effect of H2-H2O on the reduction of olivine pellets in CO-CO2 gas. ISIJ International. Vol. 52. 2012. No. 11. s. 1973-1978.
  • Mäkelä M, Paananen T, Heino J, Kokkonen T, Huttunen S, Makkonen H & Dahl O
    Influence of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag on the mechanical properties and reduction behavior of cold-agglomerated blast furnace briquettes. ISIJ International Vol. 52, No. 6.
  • Salmi O, Hukkinen J, Heino J, Pajunen N & Wierink M
    Governing the interplay between industrial ecosystems and environmental regulation: The case of the Gulf of Bothnia heavy industries in Finland and Sweden. Journal of Industrial Ecology Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 119 – 126.
  • Suopajärvi H & Fabritius T
    Effects of biomass use in integrated steel plant V gate-to-gate life cycle inventory method. ISIJ International Vol.52, No. 5, pp.779-787.


  • Hiltunen J, Heikkinen E-P, Jaako J & Ahola J
    Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education. European journal of engineering education. Vol. 36. 2011. No. 1. s. 75-85.
  • Järvinen M, Pisilä S, Kärnä, A & Fabritius T
    Fundamental Mathematical Model for AOD Process. Part I: Derivation of the model. Steel research international, Volume 82, Issue 6, June, pp. 638?649 (2011)
  • Mäkelä M, Paananen T, Kokkonen T, Makkonen H & Heino J
    Preliminary evaluation of fly ash and lime for use as supplementary cementing materials in cold-agglomerated blast furnace briquetting, ISIJ International 51 (2011) 776-781.
  • Mäkelä, Mikko; Paananen, Timo; Kokkonen, Tommi; Makkonen, Hannu; Heino, Jyrki &  Dahl O
    Preliminary evaluation of fly ash and lime for use as supplementary cementing materials in cold-agglomerated blast furnace briquetting. ISIJ International 51 (2011) (5), 776-781. 2011
  • Pisilä, S.E., Järvinen, M.P., Kärnä, A.V. and Fabritius, T.
    Fundamental Mathematical Model for AOD Process. Part II: Model validation. Steel research international, Volume 82, Issue 6, June, pp. 650-657 (2011)


  • Fabritius Timo, Riipi Jaana, Järvinen Mika, Mattila Olli, Heikkinen Eetu-Pekka, Kärnä Aki, Kurikkala Jari, Sulasalmi Petri, Härkki Jouko
    (2010) Interfacial phenomena in metal-slag-gas system during AOD process. - ISIJ International 50 (6), 797-803.
  • Gornostayev S.S., Härkki J.J., Kerkkonen O. and Fabritius T.M.J.
    Carbon spheres in metallurgical coke. 2010
  • Heikkinen Eetu-Pekka, Kokkonen Tommi, Mattila Riku & Fabritius Timo
    (2010) Influence of sequential contact with two melts on the wetting angle of the ladle slag and different steel grades on magnesia-carbon refractories. - Steel Research International 81 (12), 1070-1077
  • Heikkinen Eetu-Pekka, Ikäheimonen Topi, Mattila Olli & Fabritius Timo
    (2010) A thermodynamic study on the oxidation of silicon, carbon and chromium in the ferro-chrome converter. (Artikkeli tieteellisessä konferenssijulkaisussa). - Proceedings of the twelwth international ferro alloy congress. Sustainable Future. Volume I. June 6-9. 2010 Helsinki, Finland. Vartiainen Asmo, Outotec. 229-237
  • Heikkinen Eetu-Pekka, Riipi Jaana, Fabritius Timo, Pajarre Risto & Koukkari Pentti
    (2010) Computational modelling of oxide surface tensions in secondary metallurgy and continuous casting. - Steel Research International 81 (11), 959-964
  • Heikkinen Eetu-Pekka, Fabritius Timo & Riipi Jaana
    (2010) Holistic analysis on the concept of process metallurgy and its application on the modelling of the AOD process. - Metallurgical and materials transactions B 41 (4), 758-766.
  • Makkonen Hannu
    Chemical and mineralogical characterization of dusts forming in stainless steel production in Tornio plants. - Proceedings of hydrometallurgical solutions for ferrous dust treatment seminar, 24-25 November 2010, Espoo Finland, Aalto University Publications in Materials Science and Engineering. Kekki A (toim.). 44-87
  • Rousu Arto, Mattila Olli, Tanskanen Pekka
    A Laboratory Investigation of the Influence of Electric Current on the Burden Reactions in A Submerged Arc Furnace. - Proceedings of the Twelfth International Ferroalloys Congress. Sustainable Future. Volume I. June 6-9. 2010 Helsinki, Finland. Vartiainen Asmo (ed.), Outotec Oyj. 303-310
  • Jari Savolainen, Arto Rousu, Timo Fabritius, Olli Mattila, Petri Sulasalmi
    (2010) Modelling of Pressure Distribution inside the SEN in a Stopper-rod controlled System. - Steel Research International 81 (11), 980–98.


  • Gornostayev Stanislav S., Kerkkonen O., Härkki Jouko
    Behavior of coal associated minerals during coking and blast furnace processes- a review. - steel research international 80 (6), 390-395
  • Gornostayev Stanislav S., Härkki Jouko, Kerkkonen O.
     Transformations of pyrite during formation of metallurgical coke. - Fuel 88 (10), 2032-2036.
  • Gornostayev Stanislav S., Härkki Jouko
    Mineralogical properties of metallurgical coke. (Abstrakti (Ei KOTAan)). - Energy research at the University of Oulu. Pongracz Eva (ed.). Oulu, Kalevaprint. 123-127
  • Järvinen Mika, Kärnä Aki, Fabritius Timo
    A detailed single bubble reaction sub-model for AOD process. - steel research international 80 (6), 431-438
  • Leinonen V., Heino J., Makkonen H.,
    2009. Towards eco-efficiency: granulated nickel slag Òs transformation into a product. Progress in Industrial Ecology Ö An International Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 29 Ö 43.
  • Niemelä M., Huttunen Satu M., Gornostayev Stanislav S., Perämäki P.
    Determination of Pt from coke samples by ICP-MS after microwave assisted digestion and microwave assisted cloud point extraction. 2009
  • Paananen T., Heikkinen Eetu-Pekka, Kokkonen Tommi, Kinnunen K.
    Preparation of mono-, di- and hemicalcium ferrite phases via melt for reduction kinetics investigations. - steel research international 80 (6), 404-409
  • Riipi Jaana, Fabritius Timo, Heikkinen Eetu-Pekka, Kupari P., Kärnä Aki
    Behavior of nitrogen during AOD process. - ISIJ International 49 (10), 1468-1473
  • Rousu A. & Mattila O.
    Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace, Steel Research International, 2009, Vol. 80, No. 11. s. 796-799.
  • Savolainen Jari, Fabritius Timo, Mattila Olli
    Effect of fluid physical properties on the emulsification. - ISIJ International 49 (1), 29-36
  • Sulasalmi Petri, Kärnä Aki, Fabritius Timo, Savolainen Jari
    CFD model for emulsification of slag into the steel. - ISIJ International 49 (11), 1661-1667
  • Sulasalmi Petri, Kärnä Aki, Fabritius Timo, Savolainen Jari
     CFD Model for Emulsification of Slag into the Steel. - ISIJ International 49 (11), 1661-1667.


  • Gornostayev, Stanislav S. & Härkki, Jouko
    Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke. - Research Letters in Materials Science, Article ID 751630, 4 pages, doi:10.1155/2008/751630, 2008, vol. 2008, s. 1-4.
  • Wienink, M. & Heino, Jyrki
    ProDOE and Bothnian arc industrial ecology enterprise. - Materia-lehti, 2008, nro 4, s. 40- 41.



  • Gornostayev S & Härkki J
    Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength. - Energy & Fuels, 2006, vol. 20, nro 6, s. 2632-2635.
  • Gornostayev S & Härkki J
    Mineral matter crystallization and crack formation in tuyere coke. - Fuel, 2006, vol. 85, nro 7-8, s. 1047-1051.
  • Gornostayev S, Kerkkonen O & Härkki J
    Importance of mineralogical data for influencing properties of coke: A reference on SiO2 polymorphs. - Steel Research International, 2006, vol. 77, nro 11, s. 770-773.
  • Tanskanen P & Makkonen H
    Design of slag mineralogy and petrology. Examples of useful methods for slag composition and property design.. - Global Slag Magazine, 2006, vol. July 2006, nro 5, s. 16-20.


  • Fabritius T, Kurkinen P, Mure P & Härkki J
    Vibration of argon-oxygen decarburisation vessel during gas injection, Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 2005, Vol.32, No.2, s. 113-119.
  • Gornostayev S & Härkki J
  • Spinel crystals in tuyere coke. Communications, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. B, 2005, vol. 36, s. 303-305.
  • Gornostayev S, Kerkkonen O & Härkki J
    Occurrence and composition of some mineral phases in the tuyere coke, ISIJ International, 2005, vol. 45, nro 1, s. 1-7.
  • Tang Y, Fabritius T & Härkki J
    Mathematical modeling of the argon oxygen decarburization converter exhaust gas system at the reduction stage, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2005, vol. 29, s. 497-514.


  • Heikkinen E-P, Fabritius T, Kokkonen T & Härkki J
  • An experimental and computational study on the melting behaviour of AOD and chromium converter slags. Steel research international. Vol. 75. 2004. No. 12. s. 800-806.
  • Luomala M, Fabritius T & Härkki J
    The Effect of Bottom Nozzle Configuration on the Bath Behaviour in the BOF, ISIJ International, Vol. 44 (2004), No. 5, pp. 809-816
  • McDonald C, Koopmans P, Drugge J, Vatanen J & Luomala M
    Consistent basic oxygen steelmaking performance, La Revue de Métallurgie-CIT, Avril 2004, pp. 275-284.
  • Tang Y, Fabritius T & Härkki J
    Modelling of Nitrogen Intrusion into an AOD Converter at the Reduction Stage Caused by Suction Oscillation in the Ventilation Hood. Steel Research International 75. No.6, June 2004. Pp. 373-381.
  • Tang Y, Fabritius T, Härkki J & Laine J
    Gas flow model in the pusher-type slab reheating furnace and flow pattern improvement by computational fluid dynamics. Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume 4. No. 1. 2004. Pp. 59-68.


  • Fabritius T, Mure P & Härkki J
    Determination of the minimum and operational gas flow rates for sidewall blowing in the AOD-converter. - ISIJ International, 2003, vol. 43, nro 8, s. 1177-1184.
  • Gornostayev S & Mutanen T
    Platinum-group minerals in chromitites of the Akanvaara deposit, Northern Finland and in their processing products. - Minerals Engineering, 2003, vol. 16, nro 11, s. 1307-1312.
  • Paananen T, Heinänen K & Härkki J
    Degradation of iron oxide caused by alumina during reduction from magnetite. - ISIJ International, 2003, vol. 43, nro 5, s. 597-605.
  • Tang Y, Laine J, Fabritius T & Härkki J
    Modeling of the gas flow and its influence on the scale accumulation in the steel slab pusher-type reheating furnace. - ISIJ International, 2003, vol. 43, nro 9, s. 1333-1341


  • Fabritius T, Mure, P, Virtanen, E, Hannula P, Luomala M & Härkki J
    Splashing mechanism in combined blowing. Ironmaking and Steelmaking 29(2002)1, s. 29-35.
  • Fabritius T, Luomala M, Virtanen E, Siivola T & Härkki J
    Effect of Bottom Nozzle Arrangement on Splashing and Spitting in Combined Blown Converter. ISIJ International 42(2002)8, s. 861-867.
  • Fabritius T, Luomala, M, Virtanen E, Tenkku H, Fabritius T, Siivola T & Härkki J
    Effect of bottom nozzle arrangement on splashing and spitting in combined blowing converter. ISIJ international 42(2002)8, s. 861-867.
  • Luomala M, Virtanen E, Mure P, Siivola T, Fabritius T & Härkki J
    A novel approach in the estimation of splashing in the BOF. Steel research 73(2002)1, s. 9-14.
  • Luomala M, Fabritius T, Virtanen E, Siivola T & Härkki J
    Splashing and Spitting Behaviour in the Combined Blown Steelmaking Converter. ISIJ International 42(2002)9, s. 944-949.
  • Luomala M, Fabritius T, Virtanen E, Siivola T, Fabritius T, Tenkku H & Härkki J
    Physical Model Study of Selective Slag Splashing in the BOF. ISIJ International 42(2002)11, s. 1219-1224.
  • Makkonen H, Heino J, Laitila L, Hiltunen A, Pöyliö E & Härkki J
    Optimisation of steel plant recycling in Finland: dusts, scales and sludge. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 35(2002), s. 77-84.
  • Mattila R, Vatanen J & Härkki J
    Chemical wearing mechanism of refractory materials in a steel ladle slag line. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 31(2002), s, 1-5.
  • Mäki A, Österman P & Luomala M
    Numerical study of the pusher-type slab reheating furnace. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 31(2002)2, s. 81-87.
  • Tang Y, Laine J, Fabritius T & Härkki J
    Simulation of Pusher-Type steel slab reheating furnace by PHOENICS, Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications, 14 (2002) 2.
  • Tanskanen P, Huttunen S, Mannila P & Härkki J
    Experimental simulations of primary slag formation in blast furnace. Ironmaking and Steelmaking 29(2002)4, s. 281-286.


  • Fabritius T, Kupari P & Härkki J
    Physical modelling of a sidewall-blowing converter. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 30(2001), s. 57-64.
  • Fabritius T, Mure P, Kupari P, Juntunen V & Härkki J
    Combined blowing with three-hole lance in a sidewall blowing converter. Steel research 72(2001)7, s. 237-244.
  • Luomala M, Mattila O & Härkki J
    Physical modelling of hot metal flow in a blast furnace hearth. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 30(2001)4, s. 225-231.
  • Luomala M, Paananen T, Köykkä M, Fabritius T, Nevala H & Härkki J
    Modeling of fluid flows in the blast furnace trough. Steel Research 72(2001)4, s. 130-135.




  • Mannila P, Salmi T, Haario H, Luoma M, Härkönen M & Sohlo J
    Stationary kinetics of essential reactions on automobile exhaust Pt-Rh/Al2O3 catalyst. Applied catalyst, B: Enviromental. 7(3-4) 1996, s.179-198.


  • Laajoki K & Makkonen H
    1993. Geology and geochemistry of Iivaara Palaeozoic alkaline intrusion (North Finland). (in Russian ) Geokhimia 8, s. 1245-1248.
  • Makkonen H, Laajoki K & Devaraju T
    1993. Mineral chemistry of clinopyroxene and feldspars in the Neoproterozoic alkaline dykes of the Bangalore district, Karnataka, India. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland 65, Part II, s. 77-88.


  • Härkki J & Palander M
    Theoretical considerations about reaxidation of the steel melt by refractory materials. Interceram 40(1991)5, s. 284-289.


Last updated: 25.4.2021