Research topics

We make cutting-edge research within the following areas:

Research topic Researcher in charge
Ionospheric research Docent Esa Turunen
Inverse problems Professor Markku Lehtinen
Magnetospheric research Docent Jyrki Manninen
Seismic research Docent Elena Kozlovskaya
Galactic cosmic rays Professor Ilya Usoskin  


SGO inverse problems group is a member of the national Centre of Excellence in Inverse Problems Research 2013-2017.


History of research topics in SGO in ionospheric and magnetospheric research

Before end of 1950's:

  • Magnetic variations
  • Pulsations

Late 1950's and 1960's

  • Ionospheric research
  • Es-layers
  • effects of nuclear explosions
  • auroral D and E regions
  • sunspot cycle variation in ionosphere radio aurora
  • auroral X-rays
  • absorption of cosmic radio noise
  • auroral particle precipitation
  • total electron content
  • Micropulsations


  • X-rays
  • devewlopment of riometer and ionosonde techniques
  • solar cycle variations
  • seasonal and diurnal variations and anomalies of absorption
  • extensive Es-layer studies
  • auroral absorption substorm
  • gravity waves anf F-layer
  • special absorption events
  • geomagnetic pulsations ands absorption


  • EISCAT development, measurement, observations, analysis
  • theoretical: formation of Es
  • IPDP pulsdations
  • ELF radio signals
  • solar and magnetic cycles
  • Polar Cap Absorption events
  • high resolutiopn observations by EISCAT
  • participation in large international campaigns


  • Ion chemistry modeling
  • applications of Statistical inversion theory
  • satellite radio tomography, optical tomography
  • PCA-events
  • heating experiments
  • morphology of lower ionosphere
  • small scale structure of riometer absorption (IRIS)
  • long term trends
  • PCA events
  • solar wind by EISCAT
  • VLF emissions
  • man made VLF
  • heater induced VLF
  • substorms and VLF
  • ionospheric Alfvén resonator
  • morphology of short period pulsations
  • GUISDAP development


  • Bayesian statistical inversion
  • D-region chemistry modelling
  • VLF-receiver
  • New ionosonde
  • Sampling techiques (GURSIP)
  • Beacon satellite tomography


  • 3rd generation of ionospheric tomography receiver and refined analysis
  • Kilpisjärvi atmospheric imaging receiver station
  • EISCAT_3D - phased-array techniques for next generation incoherent scatter radar
  • Software-defined radio techniques

Last updated: 20.5.2015