Small-N COMPASSS (COMParative methods for the Advancement of Systematic Cross-case analysis and Small-n Studies), Systematic cross-case analysis(Departement Sociologie, Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium;Department of Sociology, University of Arizona etc.): Working Papers, COMParative methods for the Advancement of Systematic cross-case analysis and Small-n Studies (COMPASSS), International resource site.

Charles C. Ragin's page (Sociology Department, University of Arizona), jonka kautta voi imuroida ilmaiseksi käyttöönsä myös QCA- ja fs/QCA -ohjelmat.

Comparative Methods Dictionary by David Levi-Faur (Political Science Deparment, University of Haifa, Israel)

Muita ohjelmia:

ASRR developed by PhD Candidate HUANG Ronggui, Wincent,Department of Public and Social Administration, City University of Hong Kong (homepage). "Miscellaneous R functions for quantitative sociological research. Most interesting ones are functions for QCA (e.g. csQCA, mvQCA, fsQCA). As far as I know, this is the first software supporting all three kinds of QCA."

KirqST (Windows, OSX, Linux) - Authors: Christopher Reichert and Claude Rubinson.

Tosmana - A Tool for Small-N Analysis written by Lasse Cronqvist, Institute for Political Science, University of Marburg (Germany).


Alasuutari, Pertti (1993) Boolen algebra ja radion kuuntelu. Sosiologia 30: 3, 216.

Alasuutari, Pertti (1994) Laadullinen tutkimus. 2. uudistettu painos. Vastapaino, Tampere. 

Amenta, Edwin & Poulsen, Jane D. (1994) Where to Begin. A Survey of Five Approaches to Selecting Independent Variables for Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Sociological Methods & Research 23: 1, 22-53.

Boswell, Terry and Brown, Cliff (1999) The Scope of General Theory. Methods for Linking Deductive and Inductive Comparative Histroty. Sociological Methods & Research 28: 2 (November), 154-185. 

Brueggemann,  John & Boswell, Terry (1998) Realizing Solidarity: Sources of Interracial  Unionism during theGreat  Depression. Work and Occupations 25: 4 (November), 436-482.

Bryson, John M.; Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin and Finn, Charles B. (2004) Visible thinking. Unlocking causal mapping for practical business results. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester.

Byrne, David (2005) Complexity, Configuration and Cases. Theory, Culture and Society 22: 10, 95-111.

Byrne, David and Ragin, Charles C. (eds) (2009) The SAGE Handbook of Case-Based Methods.  SAGE, Los Angeles - London - New Delhi - Singapore - Washington DC.

Caramani, Daniele (2008) Introduction to the Comparative Method With Boolean Algebra. Series:Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences 158. Series Editor: Tim F. Liao.Sage, London.

Caren, Neal and Panofsky, Aaron (2005) TQCA: A Technique for Adding Temporality to Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Sociological Methods & Research 34: 147-172.

Comparative Research: Special Issue (2006) International Journal of Sociology 21: 5 (September).

Cooper, Barry and Glaesser, Judith (2011) Paradoxes and Pitfalls in Using Fuzzy Set QCA: Illustrations from a Critical Review of a Study of Educational Inequality. Sociological Research Online, 16: 3: 8.

Cooper, B. and Glaesser, J. (2011) Using case-based approaches to analyse large datasets: a comparison of Ragin's fsQCA and fuzzy cluster analysis.International Journal of Social Research Methodology 14: 1, 31–48.

Cooper, Barry & Glaesser, Judith (2015) Exploring the robustness of set theoretic findings from a large n fsQCA: an illustration from the sociology of education. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2015.1033799

Cooper, B.; Glaesser, J.; Hammersley, M. and Gomm, R. (2011) Challenging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide: Explorations in Case-focused Causal Analysis. Continuum Press, London & New York.

Coverdill, James E. and Finlay, William (1995) Understanding Mills Via Mill-Type Methods: An Application of Qualitative Comparative Analysis to a Study of Labor Management in Southern Textile Manufacturing. Qualitative Sociology 18: 4, 457-478. 

De Meur, Gisèle & Rihoux, Benoît (2002) L'analyse quali-quantitative comparée (AQQC-QCA). Approches, techniques et applications en sciences humaines. (English abstract). Academia-Bruylant, Louvain-la-Neuve Belgique.

Emmenegger, Patrick (2011) Job security regulations in Western democracies: A fuzzy set analysis. European Journal of Political Research 50: 3, 336–364. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2010.01933.x

Fritsche, Erik (2014) Making hermeneutics explicit: how QCA supports an insightful dialogue between theory and cases. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 17: 4, 403–426. DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2013.779778

Glaesser, Judith & Cooper, Barry (2014) Exploring the consequences of a recalibration of causal conditions when assessing sufficiency with fuzzy set QCA. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 17: 4, 387–401. DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2013.769782

Goertz, Gary and Mahoney, James (2005) Two-Level Theories and Fuzzy-Set Analysis. Sociological Methods & Research 33: 497-538.

Hellström, Eeva (1998) Qualitative Comparative Analysis: A Useful Tool for Research into Forestry Conflicts and Forest Policy. Forest Science 44: 2 (May), 254-265. 

Hellström, Eeva (2001) Conflict Cultures – Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Environmental Conflicts in Forestry. Silva Fennica. Monographs 2•2001. The Finnish Society of Forest Science, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki.

Herrmann, Andrea and Cronqvist, Lasse (2006) Contradictions in Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): Ways Out of the Dilemma. EUI Working Paper SPS No. 2006/06.

Huber, Evelyne - Ragin, Charles - Stephens, John D. (1993) Social Democracy, Christian Democracy, Constitutional Structure, and the Welfare State. American Journal of Sociology 99: 3 (November), 711-749. 

Hyyryläinen, Esa (1997) Kvalitatiivinen analyysi Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) -menetelmällä. Centre for Comparative Public Policy and Management occasional papers, 1997, 3. University of Vaasa, Faculty of Social Sciences. Vaasa 1997. 

Härkönen, Juho & Kouvo, Antti (2002) Yhteiskuntatiede ja sumeat joukot. Kirja-arvio: Ragin, Charles C. 2000.Fuzzy-Set Social Science. University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London. Sosiologia 39: 2, 164-166.

Jokinen, Kimmo ja Kovala, Urpo (2005) Laadullinen vertaileva tutkimus. Julkaisussa: Alapuro, Risto ja Arminen, Ilkka (toim) (2005) Vertailevan tutkimuksen ulottuvuuksia. WSOY, Helsinki, 81-96.

Katz, Aaron; vom Hau, Matthias and Mahoney, James (2005) Explaining the Great Reversal inSpanish America: Fuzzy-Set Analysis Versus Regression Analysis.Sociological Methods & Research 33: 539-573.

Klir, George J., Ute St. Clair and Bo Yuan (1997) Fuzzy Set Theory. Foundations and Applications. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River (NJ).

Kvist, Jon (2007) Fuzzy set ideal type analysis.Journal of Business Research 60: 474–481.

Laine, Markus, Bamberg, Jarkko & Jokinen, Pekka (toim) (2007) Tapaustutkimuksen taito. Gaudeamus, Helsinki.

Laita, Luis M. & de Ledesma, Luis & Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio & Brunori, Alberto (2001) George Boole, a Forerunner of Symbolic Computation. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2001, 1-19. DOI:10.1007/3-540-44990-6.

Luoma, Pentti (1993) Boolen analyysi laadullisessa tutkimuksessa. Sosiologia 30: 3, 212-215. 

Luoma, Pentti (1996; updated 22.11.2004). Kvalitatiivinen vertaileva analyysi (QCA). Informaatiotutkimuksen ja sosiologian laitos, Oulun yliopisto, Oulu.

Luoma, Pentti and Reinikainen, Kalle (1994) Qualitative Comparative Analysis - An Exercise. Paper prepared for professor Charles C. Ragin after the Oslo Summer School of Comparative Social Science Studies in the University of Oslo, August 1-19 1994.

Maggetti, Martino (2007) De facto independence after delegation: A fuzzy-set analysis.Regulation & Governance  1, 271–294.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5991.2007.00023.x

Marx, Axel (2008) Limits to non-state market regulation: A qualitative comparative analysis of the international sport footwear industry and the Fair Labor Association. Regulation & Governance 2, 253–273. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5991.2008.00037.x

Marx, Axel & van Hootegem, Geert (2008) Comparative configurational case analysis of ergonomic injuries.Journal of Business Research 60: 522–530.

Marx, Axel and Dusa, Adrian (2011) Crisp-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), Contradictions and Consistency Benchmarks for Model Specification. Methodological Innovations Online 6: 2, 103–148.

Mayer, Ines; Schneider, Volker  and Wagemann, Claudius (2011) Energieeffizienz in privaten Haushalten im internationalen Vergleich. Eine Policy-Wirkungsanalyse mit QCA (Energy efficiency in private households: an international comparison. A policy impact analysis with QCA [Qualitative Comparative Analysis]). Politische Vierteljahresschrift 52: 3, 399–423.

Mendel, J. and Ragin, C. C. (2011) fsQCA: Dialog Between Jerry M. Mendel and Charles C. Ragin, USC-SIPI REPORT # 411.

Mendelson, Elliott (1970) Theory and Problems of Boolean Algebra and Switching Circuits. Schaum's Outline Series. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York etc.

Miethe, Terance D. & Drass, Kriss A. (1999) Exploring the Social Context of Instrumental and ExpressiveHomicides: An Application of Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 15: 1 (March), 1-21. 

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. (1994) Choosing Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis. Appendix in Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M.: Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. 

Nichols, Elizabeth (1986) Skocpol and Revolution: Comparative Analysis Versus Historical Conjuncture. Comparative Social Research 9: 163-86.

Pajunen, K. (2008). Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis.   Journal of International Business Studies 39: 4, 652–669.   doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400371

Ragin, Charles C. (1987) The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. University of California Press, Berkeley (Calif.). 

Ragin, Charles C. (1989) The Logic of the Comparative method and the Algebra of Logic. Journal of Quantitative Anthropology (1989): 1, 373-398. 

Ragin, Charles C. (1993) The Comparative Study of Ethnicity. Methodological and Conceptual Issues. In Race and Ethnicity in Research Methods. Edited by John H. Stanfiel II and Rutledge M. Dennis. SAGE Publications Newbury Park-London-New Delhi. 

Ragin, Charles C. (1994) Constructing Social Research. The Unity and Diversity of Method. Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks (Calif.). 

Ragin, Charles C. (1995) Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis to Study Configurations. In Qualitative Methodology and Computers. Edited by Udo Kelle. SAGE, London-Thousand Oaks-New Delhi. 

Ragin, Charles C. (1998) Case-oriented research and the study of social action. In H.-P. Blossfeld and G. Prein (eds.), Rational Choice Theory and Large-Scale Data Analysis. Westview Press, Boulder Col. 

Ragin, Charles C. (2000) Fuzzy-Set Social Science. University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London.

Ragin, Charles C. (2008) Redesigning Social Inquiry. Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ragin, Charles C. - Mayer, Susan E. - Drass, Kriss A. (1984) Assessing Discrimination: A Boolean Approach. American Sociological Review 49: 221-234.

Ragin, Charles C. and Pennings, Paul (2005) Fuzzy Sets and Social Research. Sociological Methods & Research 33: 423-430.

Ragin, Charles C. & Strand, Sarah Ilene (2008)Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis to Study Causal Order. Comment on Caren and Panofsky (2005). Sociological Methods & Research 36: 4, 431-441.

Rantala, Kati (1998) Art as a communicative practice for teenagers. YOUNG -Nordic Journal of Youth Research 6: 4.

Rantala, K. & Hellström, E. (2001) Qualitative comparative analysis and a hermeneutic approach to interview data. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 4: 2 (April), 87-100. Artikkeli löytyy myös Kati Rantalan väitöskirjasta: ks. Rantala, Kati (2001) "Ite pitää keksii se juttu". Tutkimus kuvataidekasvatuksen ja kasvatettavan kohtaamisesta. Helsingin yliopiston sosiologian laitoksen tutkimuksia no. 239. Helsingin yliopisto, Helsinki, 87-100.

Research in the Sociology of Organizations (2013) Volume 38 - Configurational Theory and Methods in Organizational Research. Edited by Peer C. Fiss, Bart Cambré, Axel Marx.

Rihoux, Benoít (2006) Governmental participation and the organizational adaptation of Green parties: On access, slack, overload and distress. European Journal of Political Research 45: 69–98.

Rihoux, Benoît (2006) Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Systematic Comparative Methods. Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges for Social Science Research. International Sociology 21: 5 (September), 679-706.

Rihoux, Benoît (2013) Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Anno 2013: Reframing the Comparative Method’s Seminal Statements. Swiss Political Science Review 19: 2, 233–245. DOI: 10.1111/spsr.12031

Rihoux, Benoît and Grimm, Heike (eds) (2006) Innovative Comparative Methods for Policy Analysis. Beyond the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide. SpringerScience+Business Media Inc., New York.

Rihoux, Benoît &Ragin, Charles C.(eds) (2009) Configurational Comparative Methods. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Technics. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Volume 51. SAGE, Los Angeles-London-New Delhi-Singapore.

Benoît Rihoux and Axel Marx (eds) (2013) QCA, 25 Years after ''The Comparative Method'' : Mapping, Challenges, and Innovations – Mini-Symposium. On behalf of: The University of Utah, WPSA (Western Political Science Association). Political Research Quarterly 6,167–235. DOI: 10.1177/1065912912468269

Rohlfing, Ingo (2012) Analyzing multilevel data with QCA: a straightforward procedure. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 15: 6, 497–506. DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2011.613673

Rohlfing, Ingo (2012) Case Studies and Causal Inferences. An Integrative Framework. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke.

Russi, Loris; Siegert, Gabriele; Gerth, Matthias A. & Krebs, Isabelle (2014) The Relationship of Competition and Financial Commitment Revisited: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis in European Newspaper Markets, Journal of Media Economics, 27:2, 60-78, DOI: 10.1080/08997764.2014.903958

Schneider, Carsten Q. and Rohlfing, Ingo (forthcoming/2012) It’s Complex! Combining Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Case Studies in Multi-Method Research.

Schneider, Carsten Q. & Wagemann, Claudius (2008) Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) und Fuzzy Sets. Ein Lehrbuch für Anwender und alle, die es werden woollen. Mit einem Vorwort von Charles Ragin. Verlag Barbara Budrich, Leverkusen - Opladen.

Schneider, Carsten Q. and Claudius Wagemann (2010) Standards of Good Practice in Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Fuzzy Sets. Comparative Sociology 9: 3, 397–418.

Schneider, Carsten Q. and Wagemann, Claudius (2012) Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences: A Guide to Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Schroeder, Michael (1997) A Brief History of the Notation of Boole's Algebra. Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 2: 1 (September).

Seawright, Jason (2002) Testing for necessary and/or sufficient causation: which cases are relevant? Political Analysis 10: 2, 178–193.  

Skaaning, Svend-Erik (2011)Assessing the Robustness of Crisp-set and Fuzzy-set QCA Results.Sociological Methods & Research40: 2, 391–408. DOI: 10.1177/0049124111404818

Smithson, Michael (2005) Fuzzy Set Inclusion: Linking Fuzzy Set Methods With Mainstream Techniques. Sociological Methods & Research 33: 431-461.

Smithson, Michael and Verkuilen, Jay (2006) Fuzzy Set Theory. Applications in Social Sciences. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences Series 147. Sage Publications, London.

Steinberg, Paul F. (2007) Causal Assessment in Small-N Policy Studies. Policy Studies Journal 35: 2 (May), 181-204.

Steinmetz, George (2004) Odious Comparisons: Incommensurability, the Case Study, and "Small N's" in Sociology. Sociological Theory 22: 3 (September), 371-400. (kritiikkiä ja vastakritiikkiä/PL)

Stokke, Olav Schram (2004) Boolean Analysis, Mechanisms, and the Study of Regime Effectiveness. In Arild Underdal and Oran R. Young (eds) Regime Consequences: Methodological Challenges and Research Strategies. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 87-119.

Tanner, Sean (2014) QCA is of questionable value for policy research. Policy and Society 33: 3, 287–298. doi:10.1016/j.polsoc.2014.08.003

Thiem, Alrik (2014) Navigating the Complexities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis: Case Numbers, Necessity Relations, and Model Ambiguities. Evaluation Review 38: 6 (December), 487–513. DOI: 10.1177/0193841X14550863

Vaisey, Stephen (2009) QCA 3.0: The "Ragin Revolution" Continues. Contemporary Sociology. A Journal of Reviews 38: 4 (July), 308-312.

Vassinen, Antti (2012) Configurational Explanation of Marketing Outcomes: A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach. Aalto University publication series: Doctoral Dissertations 39/2012. Aalto University, Helsinki.

Verkuilen, Jay (2005) Assigning Membership in a Fuzzy Set Analysis. Sociological Methods & Research 33: 462-496.

Verweij, Stefan and Gerrits, Lasse M. (2012) Understanding and researching complexity with Qualitative Comparative Analysis: Evaluating transportation infrastructure projects. Evaluation 19: 1, 40–55. DOI: 10.1177/1356389012470682

Verweij, Stefan & Noy, Chaim (2013) Set-theoretic methods for the social sciences: a guide to qualitative comparative analysis. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 16: 2, 165–169. DOI: 10.1080/13645579.2013.762611

Vink, Maarten and van Vliet, Olaf (2009) Not Quite Crisp, Not Yet Fuzzy? Assessing the Potentials and Pitfalls of Multi-Value QCA. Field Methods 21: 3, 265–289.

Wade, Judith (1999) Including All Learners: QCA's Approach. British Journal of  Special Education 26: 2 (June), 80-82.

Wageman, Claudius (2015) Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Im Wenzelburger, G. & Zohlnhöfer, E. (Hrsg.) Handbuch Policy-Forschung. Springer Fachmedien, Wiebaden, 429–452. doi: 10.1007/978-3-658-01968-6_17


Viimeksi päivitetty: 2.6.2015