Thesis defence in the University of Oulu

Doctoral Candidate

MSc Leila Ukkola

Faculty and research unit

University of Oulu Graduate School, Faculty of Medicine, Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management

Field of study

Nursing Science

Date and time of the thesis defence

16.4.2021 12:00

Place of the thesis defence

Faculty of Medicine, Auditorium F202 (Aapistie 5 B). Remote access:

Topic of the dissertation

Informing the patient in connection with radiological examinations exposing to ionizing radiation


Professor Eija Paavilainen, Tampere University


Professor Helvi Kyngäs, Oulu University

Informing the patient in connection with radiological examinations exposing to radiation

The use of ionizing radiation in radiological examinations and information about it to patients are based on international and national laws, directives and recommendations. Both referrers and radiological practitioners share the responsibility for justification. The practical aspects of justification can be delegated to another entitled individual who is, in most cases, a radiographer. Justification is the process of weighing up the benefit of the exposure against the possible detriment that the radiation might cause. The patient and the guardian should also be involved in the shared decision-making process; they should be provided with sufficient information to allow them to provide informed consent.

This study describes the information obtained by adult patients and parents of children in connection with radiological examinations exposing to ionizing radiation and their wishes concerning it. In addition, radiographers’ actions when informing about radiation doses and risks as well as possible barriers related to informing was studied.

Adult patients and parents did not receive sufficient information. In particular, they were insufficiently informed about the dose and risks of radiation and alternative examinations. They received more information about the purpose of the examination. They wished to receive diverse information about the examination, particularly from the referring practitioner and radiographer, as well as written information. Specifically, information on the purpose of the examination and dose and risks of radiation was expected. Radiographers had informed patients infrequently about dose and risks of radiation. They thought they might cause unnecessary fear or that informing was not necessary. They also assumed that the referrer had already informed the patient.

The findings of the study may be utilized to develop informing patients in connection with radiological examinations exposing to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, the aim is to develop a mode of operation for informing patients at Oulu University Hospital as required by legislation and recommendations.


Last updated: 7.4.2021