My research program covers widely animal ecology. This includes evolutionary and behavioural ecology, population biology and applied ecology. Within the fields of evolutionary and behavioural ecology, I focus on variability between individuals and on social interactions among individuals. Additionally, the topics include how man-made changes in an environment affect animal behaviour. I have been leading an independent research project over thirty years (currently financed by the Academy of Finland). I have been supervising 15 PhD students and over 30 Master’s thesis.