FU XII Symposia
1. Itämerensuomalaisten kielten muutos monikielisessä ympäristössä
Järjestäjät: Sofia Björklöf, Riho Grünthal (rgruntha/at/mappi.helsinki.fi) ja Santra Jantunen
Työpajan tavoitteena on tarkastella monikielisyyden ja kielikontaktien vaikutusta itämerensuomalaisten kielten muutokseen. Tarkasteltavana ovat erityisesti pitkän aikaa vähemmistökielen asemassa olleet puhujamäärältään pienet itämerensuomalaiset kielet ja niiden suhde naapurikieliinsä eli muut kuin nykysuomi ja nykyviro. Kielen muutos näkyy voimakkaimpana yhteisöissä, joissa kaksi- tai monikielisyys on ollut pitkäaikaista ja kielenvaihto intensiivistä viime vuosikymmeninä. Usein kyseessä on pitkäaikainen kehitys, ja vanhat kielennäytekokoelmat ja nykyistä kielitilannetta edustava aineisto kuvaavat sen eri vaiheita.
Tässä yhteydessä monikielisyyttä tarkastellaan osana kielen muutosta, sen vaikutusta kielen sanastoon, kielioppiin ja rakenteisiin eli kielen perusolemukseen. Monikielisyys ja vieraan kielen vaikutus näkyvät itämerensuomessa selvimmin erilaisten indoeurooppalaisten kielten, kuten venäjän, latvian sekä laajemmin skandinaavisten ja balttilaisten kielten vaikutuksena. Toisaalta kielialueelle ovat tyypillisiä myös sen sisäiset kosketukset ja erilaiset vuorovaikutustilanteet typologisesti samankaltaisten lähisukukielten välillä. Viime mainitut ovat usein vaikeampia tunnistaa kuin kosketukset typologisesti erilaisten ja geneettisesti eri alkuperää olevien kielten väliset. Avainasemassa on edustavan aineiston löytäminen, ja työpajassa korostetaan myös empiirisen aineiston merkitystä kielen muutosta tarkastelevan tutkimuksen perustana.
2. Multilingual practices and code-switching in Finno-Ugric communities
Organisers: Márta Csepregi, Riho Grünthal (rgruntha/at/mappi.helsinki.fi), Magdolna Kovács, and Zsuzsa Salánki
The Finno-Ugric speech communities are currently experiencing profound and, to a large extent, irreversible transformation. The accelerating erosion of linguistic networks and pace of change are not unique in a global context. However, in the Finno-Ugric setting current cultural change is more intensive than ever. The most sensitive laboratory of the prevailing situation is evidenced in minority languages. Change in everyday language practices takes place via bilingualism, multilingualism and an increased use of the majority language.
The workshop intends to pay special attention to those viewpoints, such as language contact situation, code-switching, speakers’ attitudes in different linguistic environments, that emphasise the importance of detailed qualitative linguistic analysis. The increase in bilingualism in various Finno-Ugric communities is well-known, but there is only a little upto-date information about the importance of the parallel use of two or more languages and its influence on both language structure and the renewal of functional domains.
Многоязычие и переключение кодов в финно-угорских сообществах
Организаторы: Марта Чепреги, Рихо Грюнталь, Магдольна Ковач и Жужа Шаланки
В финно-угорских языковых сообществах в настоящее время протекают глубокие и, по большей части, необратимые трансформации. Разрушение коммуникативных сетей внутри сообществ и нарастающий темп данных перемен не являются чем-то уникальным в глобальном контексте. Тем не менее в ситуации с финно-угорскими народами наблюдаемые культурные изменения интенсивны как никогда раньше. Наиболее ярко подобные процессы проявляются в случае с миноритарными языками. Изменения ежедневных речевых практик происходят посредством двуязычия, многоязычия и увеличения использования мажоритарного языка.
На симпозиуме особое внимание будет уделено таким аспектам, как языковые контакты, переключение кодов, отношение носителей к языкам в различных сообществах, что подчеркивает важность детальных квалитативных исследований. Расширение двуязычия в финно-угорских сообществах – хорошо известный факт, но имеется лишь небольшое количество актуальной информации о важности параллельного использования двух или более языков и влиянии этого на структуру обоих языков и обновление сфер их применения.
3. From spoken Baltic-Finnic vernaculars to their national standardizations and new literary languages CANCELLED
Organisers: Petri Lauerma (plauerma/at/kotus.fi) and Leena Joki
All Baltic-Finnic languages have grown to be used as literary languages, though with vast differences in time and scope. Literary Finnish and Estonian - now unifying national languages of their countries, though originally based on only one main dialect - trace back to the 15th century, while the literary standard of Votian is a development of the very eve of the 21th century. Attempts to develop common literary norms for smaller B-F languages such as Carelian and Vepsian have been largely unsuccessful, resulting in separate literary languages based on different dialects, though some scholars maintain that unifying norms should still be developed for these languages also. Recently, however, even with Finnish and Estonian, advocates of certain dialects have started to develop their own literary languages (e.g. meänkieli in the area of Finnish dialects spoken in northern Sweden; võru and seto in the area of southern Estonian dialects).
The time has come to evaluate what we can learn from this history, as well as what the future may bring, considering the huge impact of new technology on the literary use of languages. The Internet presents small languages with great possibilities, but does it also imperil the entire idea of standardized languages? The symposium welcomes contributions relating to the originally vernacular-based literary standardizations of all B-F languages, ranging from phonology to syntax and vocabulary, at all periods. Topics of lesser-known literary languages as well as recent, or forgotten, phases of nationally standardized languages, above all from the viewpoint of the unification or dispersion of their literary forms, are especially encouraged.
4. The Syntax of Samoyedic and Ob-Ugric Languages
Organisers: Larisa Leisiö (larisa.leisio/at/uta.fi) and Irina Nikolaeva
(Kone Foundation & University of Tampere, SOAS, London)
Spoken in Western and Central Siberia, the Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic languages are geographically close and demonstrate a number of common features at all levels of linguistic structure. It has even been suggested in the literature (most prominently by Helimskij 1982, see also Häkkinen 2009) that at some stage they formed a kind of genetic grouping, a hypothetical Eastern Uralic, which was the
first to diverge from the Uralic proto-language. The symposium will focus on the syntax of Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic languages with the aim of investigating the variations in their syntactic structure, the contactinduced phenomena in the domain of syntax, as well as the potential common genetic heritage.
The topics include (but are not necessarily limited to):
- constituent order
- argument structure and the syntactic properties of core arguments;
- valence-changing processes;
- the syntax of complex sentences;
- information structure and its reflection in syntax.
We welcome contributions that either introduce the new data on the syntax of Samoyedic and Ob-Ugric languages, or present a new theoretical analysis of the available data.
5. The Development of Volgaic and Permic literary languages
Organisers: Sirkka Saarinen (sirkka.saarinen/at/utu.fi) and Jorma Luutonen
The symposium welcomes contributions related to the following two main lines:
a) the history of Volgaic and Permic literary languages from the earliest texts to the 1990s;
b) recent developments in these literary languages.
The symposium’s theme covers development and change in all levels of language structure: vocabulary, orthography, morphology, syntax, text/discourse. Sociolinguistic aspects of the negotiation of literary norms can also be addressed. During the past two decades, the world of writing and publishing has changed fundamentally as new electric media have emerged. The organizers wish to see contributions that analyze how these developments affect literary languages. Assuming new, alternative points of view, such as critical discourse analysis, is also encouraged.
6. Syntactic Structure of Uralic Languages
Organisers: Anders Holmberg (Newcastle University), Balazs Surányi (HAS-RIL & Pázmány University), Orsolya Tánczos (HAS-RIL & Pázmány University)
Contact: Orsolya Tánczos (orsolyatan/at/gmail.com)
Despite the fact that there has been an increase in the number of studies and the amount of research on the syntax of Uralic languages in the past few years, syntactic phenomena in the small Uralic languages still remain understudied (e.g. the interaction between intonation, word order and information structure, syntactic function of possessors, etc.). Based on recent papers on Uralic we can discover very close relations among some of the languages, very distant relations among others, but even the distant relatives still display common, family-specific characteristics. What are the common syntactic properties of the Uralic languages? Can we talk about ‘Uralic syntax’? Can we say that these properties are further evidence of the Uralic languages belonging to one language family? Formal analyses of syntactic phenomena in Uralic languages may extend our knowledge of human language and may lead to e.g. a better understanding of the complex relationships among languages or language contact.
This workshop aims to be a forum to present and discuss current issues concerning the syntax of Uralic languages based on any kind of theoretical approach. The purpose is to examine the Uralic languages both from a synchronic and from a diachronic perspective, and both within one language and cross-linguistically. We welcome papers on syntactic research of Uralic languages carried out in formal models of grammar or contemporary functionalist approaches. Theoretical and experimental, synchronic and diachronic papers are solicited. More specifically, this workshop aims to address topics including, but not limited to, the following questions:
- Interaction between word order and information structure
- Differential object marking
- Possessive suffixes as definiteness markers
- Predication in Uralic
- Subject agreement in non-finite constructions
- Language contact inside and outside of the Uralic Language Family
- Syntactic change in Uralic Languages
The language of the workshop (including handouts/slideshows) will be English. We are planning to invite two keynote speakers for the workshop.
We are planning to publish the papers of the presenters in the online journal Finno-Ugric Languages and Linguistics, in a special issue edited by the organizers of the workshop.
7. Functional Verbs in Uralic CANCELLED
Organiser: Gerson Klumpp (gerson.klumpp/at/ut.ee)
Uralic languages display a wide array of functional verbs among which the negative auxiliary found in many branches of Uralic is generally the best known. In such V V constructions, the negative auxiliary is often bound to a specific construction with a specialized negative stem (connegative). In addition, also temporal, phasal, aspectual, and modal auxiliaries belong to this sphere. In contrast to negation, verbs belonging to the other functional domains are often more complex as their auxiliary function is often clearly secondary and its primary use as a lexical verb is equally still attested which requires a more fine graded approach due to ongoing semantic bleaching in their current stage of grammaticalization. Functional competition can be readily observed in specific semantic domains, e.g., modality or aspectuality where occasionally multiple encodings, e.g. functional verbs, semiverbally encoded predicative nouns, or suffixal derivation are in use.
The proposed symposium focuses on instances of the type V V, i.e. constructions with a main and second verb in which the second verb takes a grammatical function within the realms of polarity, mood, tense, phase, aspect, evidentiality or causation. The aim of the symposium is to come to a better understanding of structural properties of functional verbs in periphrastic constructions, an evaluation of current distinctions like auxiliary verb vs. modal verb vs. light verb.
Apart from morphological considerations of the auxiliary itself (e.g. productivity, defectivity), the encoding of the main verb (e.g. specialized nominalizations, plain infinitives) and word order (ordering of V V, alternative word orders on clause level triggered by V V constructions) belong to question which are of equal relevance. Additional topics to be addressed are grammaticalization paths (e.g. lexical verb à functional verb à suffixation) as well as constructional properties, questions of work distribution between functional verbs and morphology, syntactic and semantic constraints (e.g. control vs. raising) and if applicable, also areal considerations.
The workshop will be conducted as an open one-day workshop with a regular call for papers; a call for papers will be issued in early 2014. The workshop intends to focus on lesser-studied Uralic languages from a general, functional perspective; submissions on languages other than Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian will be prioritized in order to add information from smaller Uralic languages to current overviews on similar verbs and constructions in major European languages.
9. Computational Uralistics
Organiser: Antti Leino (unni-paiva.leino/at/uta.fi)
Studying the relationships between Uralic languages using computerised corpora and computational methods. Papers could be about compiling different kinds of cross-language corpora, using computational tools for analysing phylogenetic and other relationships between languages, or other ways to use modern technology for composing a better picture of the Uralic language family.
10. Language Technology through Citizen Science
Organisers: Trond Trosterud, Jack Rueter, Ph.D. Stipend-funded project director of "Open Language Technology for Uralic Minority Languages" jack.rueter/at/helsinki.fi, and Jussi-Pekka Hakkarainen Digitization Project of Kindred Languages jussi-pekka.hakkarainen/at/helsinki.fi
Language Technologies for the Uralic Languages
A large number of the Uralic languages we know today are peripheral, lack computational linguistic resources and have little if any presence in the webosphere. These languages have a threshold to overcome before they can be utilized sovereignly in the social media and IT networks.
By drawing upon open-source achievements and development in language technology and open-source language materials available, the individual language communities may come to realize actual opportunities in the reusability of their own language resources.
The purpose of the symposium is two-fold:
(1) To present open-source language technological achievements and tools directed at the documentation of minority Uralic languages through the application of Citizen Science methods and crowd sourcing possibilities.
(2) To present and develop innovations for advancing the utilization of Citizen Science and crowd sourcing in open-source language technology.
The individual papers are intended to direct our attention to existing forums for mutually beneficial open-source language technological achievements, development and their maintenance through Citizen Science and crowdsourcing.
The papers in this symposium can be but are not limited to the following themes:
1) Language technology for Uralic languages
3) Sharing of achievements with the research and language communities
11. Finno-Ugric languages as target languages
Organisers Pirkko Muikku-Werner (pirkko.muikku-werner/at/uef.fi)
and Johanna Laakso (johanna.laakso/at/univie.ac.at)
The VIRSU network has connected researchers and teachers of Finno-Ugric languages as second languages already fifteen years. At the VIRSU symposium in Oulu the discussion of the future of Finno-Ugric languages as target languages will be continued. These languages are often either underrepresented in applied linguistics, or research into teaching and learning them mainly takes place in national and regional frameworks. Thus, research into the teaching and learning of the Finno-Ugric languages, when brought into a framework of international cooperation, can essentially contribute to the study of language learning worldwide. At the same time, this research is urgently needed for maintaining the Finno-Ugric minority languages as part of the world’s linguistic diversity.
The symposium will offer the possibility to present new research results on the field. In the last five years many interesting themes have arisen – e.g. the issues of new source languages (sign language), new teaching methods, receptive multilingualism, or the revitalisation of extremely endangered or already extinct languages – while the traditional questions of the acquisition, teaching and use of the Finno-Ugric languages have lost nothing of their actuality.
The focus of the symposium is on such questions as the following:
Professor Maisa Martin (University of Jyväskylä) is going to give a keynote speech with the title “Constructions as a starting point of second language acquisition”.
The symposium consists of 10–12 papers which deal with the main themes. The papers will be chosen from offered papers. Each paper takes 20 minutes + 10 minutes discussion; the keynote session takes 45 minutes. A general call for papers will be issued on relevant linguistic and Finno-Ugristic fora as soon as the symposium is confirmed by the organizers and the referee board nominated. Participants who do not use English in their symposium presentation are asked to provide an English abstract.
12. Expressions of evidentiality in Uralic languages
Organisers: Seppo Kittilä and Lotta Jalava (lotta.jalava/at/helsinki.fi)
Evidentiality as a linguistic notion refers to the source of information speakers have for their statements. The statements can be based on, for example, direct sensory evidence, hearsay, inference, or on shared or private information. All languages can refer to the source of information somehow, but languages differ according to whether evidentiality is an obligatory (verbal) category or not. In Uralic languages evidentiality is not an obligatory category, and many of these languages lack grammaticalized evidentials. However, in Uralic languages lexical elements such as specialized particles or verbs of sensory perception may be used to indicate the kind of evidence the speaker has for her/his statement.
In some of the Uralic languages indirect evidence may be expressed as part of the modal system of the language, or, as secondary use of other verbal categories such as tense and aspect (e.g. perfects or resultatives), but in some Uralic languages there are also grammatical evidentials for hearsay or non-visual sensory evidence, that is, elements that indicate source of information as their primary function. In recent years, evidentiality has been a popular topic also in research of languages lacking obligatory evidentiality, especially when it comes to (Indo-)European languages. As for Uralic languages, expressions of evidentiality are much less studied.
This theme session aims to explore how source of information is expressed in Uralic languages. It brings together scholars studying evidentiality and related phenomena in different Uralic languages/language groups and in their contact languages. The main focus is on the analysis of evidential strategies/expression in Uralic languages, especially from a typological perspective (or from the viewpoint of what Uralic data can provide for our understanding of evidentiality). We encourage contributors to take any descriptive, theoretical, comparative or historical perspective on evidentiality in Uralic languages.
Specific topics to be discussed include, but are not limited to:
13. Personal name systems in Finnic and beyond
Organiser: Terhi Ainiala (terhi.ainiala/at/helsinki.fi)
In all cultures, giving a child a name means that he is accepted as a member of the community. Personal names express the identity of a person in two ways: in the first place, they tell the other members of the community who the individual in question is and secondly, they tell the community who he is or who he is expected to be. Personal names thus have a significant role in building a person’s individual and social identity.
As elements inherited from the past, names often reflect more archaic linguistic and cultural relations, concepts and value systems than the present language use, and are thus of great significance in the investigation of past conceptual realms, inter-group relations, cultural identities and religious beliefs.
This symposium is focused on the study of anthroponymic systems in Finnic and other Finno-Ugrian languages. Both historical and present-day materials are welcome, as well as studies on names’ structural and semantic analyses and perspectives on sociolinguistics and identity-related issues.
14. Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Finno-Ugric Literatures
Organisers: Johanna Domokos (johanna.domokos/at/uni-bielefeld.de) and Johanna Laakso
Multilingualism and multiculturalism reflected in the present linguistic and literary studies move the traditional – de facto reductionist, homogenising – analytic perspective toward a more inclusive focus on intra- and intercultural diversity, transversality and polyvocality. They offer special lenses which to focus various debates also in Uralic studies that try to come to terms a.o. with issues of shifting languages, identities, agencies, of intercultural and interlingual exchange, or processes of commodification and transculturation.
Multilingual and multicultural studies enables to explore the dynamics and tensions of language, aesthetics and politics, between research, arts and entertainment, of (re)production, reception and transformation of culture. The present symposium aims to seek further avenues of research into literary multilingualism and multiculturalism in general, as well as in the Uralic literary field, focusing on questions such as:
- How and to what extent do linguistic research methods and theories of code-switching, language contact, trans- and polylanguaging apply to research on the phenomena of literary multilingualism?
- Are there characteristics common to or typical of the multilingualism and multiculturalism in Uralic literatures?
- What kind of impact does multiculturality have on Uralic linguistic and literary fields (interference, transference, code-switching, nonce-borrowing etc.)?
- How does the construction of "linguistic landscapes" by (references to) multilingualism relate to the multilingual realities in which many Finno-Ugrians actually live?
- What techniques do Uralic authors use in order to highlight the contrast between their language and culture and the neighbouring or majority language and culture?
- How do Finno-Ugrian authors use multilingual phenomena and cultural interference for constructing their „transethnicities”?
The symposium will consist of contributions of 10-15 invited speakers and a general discussion open to all participants of the CIFU. It wishes to continue the work of the symposium organised as part of the 11th Congressus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum in Piliscsaba, Hungary, which results were published in Laakso, J. -- Domokos. J. (eds): Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Finno-Ugric Literatures, Fusa, vol. 8., 2012.
15. Ethnofuturism and contemporary art of Finno-Ugric peoples
Organisers: Elvira Kolcheva (Эльвира Мазитовна Колчева) and Esa-Jussi Salminen (ejsalminen/at/gmail.com)
The year 2014 was a jubilee for the Finno-Ugric ethnofuturism. Twentyfive years have passed since Estonian poet Karl Martin Sinijärv invented the term ethnofuturism. Twenty years have passed since the first Ethnofuturistic conference in Tartu. The main idea of it was a synthesis of authentic Finno-Ugric mentality and achievements of world's art in order to help a small nation to survive in the conditions of globalization. In these twenty years the ethnofuturistic movement has undergone a few transformations and has got its own typical features among every Finno-Ugric nation. The task of the symposium is to define the artistic practice of ethnofuturism. What kind of artistic forms ethnofuturism has given rise to? What are its achievements? How does it interplay with the folk art, or with other schools of art and popular culture? What kind of contribution does it has on the culture of Finno-Ugric peoples and what is its place in the contemporary process of global art?
16. Rethinking family values. The conception of family in the context of new rural everyday life
Organiser: Ildikó Lehtinen (ildiko.lehtinen/at/nba.fi)
Participants: Dmitri Baidimirov (Joshkar-Ola: babay102/at/gmail.ru), Mari Immonen (Vantaa mari.immonen/at/saunalahti.fi), Tatjana Moldanova (Hanty-Mansijsk: tatjanamoldanowa/at/yandex.ru) Tamara Molotova (Joshkar-Ola: marnii/at/mari-el.ru), Galina Nikitina (Izhevsk: nikitina/at/ni.udm.ru), Helena Ruotsala (Turku: helruo/at/utu.fi), Eszter Ruttkay-Miklián (Zirc: eruttkaym/at/gmail.ru)
17. BODY – IDENTITY – SOCIETY : Concepts of the Socially Accepted Body
Organiser: Katalin Juhász (drjuhaszkatica/at/gmail.com)
The concept of cleanliness as a social and historical construction. (How the concept of well-groomed appearance standards – perceptions of neatness in women and men – are socially shaped).
Methods, techniques, tools and institutions of body care among people of different background (genders, generations, social and ethnical groups).
Daily washing habits and rituals
Magic forms of washing/bathing
Body and beauty care
Attitudes towards the body within different social groups by looking at the representations of the (changing) ideal of the body
Interaction between appearance and identity, social networks and social status work.
18. Borderlands in the north-east Europe – complex spaces and cultures of Finno-Ugric peoples –Session
Organisers: Sirpa Aalto (chair), Titta Kallio-Seppä, Sami Lakomäki, Timo Ylimaunu (timo.ylimaunu/at/oulu.fi).
This session will focus on the borderlands theme to discuss and analyze this perspective from the questions of material culture, history, archaeology, and linguistic studies. Themes are wide form colonialism, urbanization, religious aspect to trade and ethnic questions. Borderlands can be defined as an area or region that was contested two or several political, religious or state powers. It can be seen as an area that might have complex and heterogeneous population, culture and ethnicity. We will encourage researches in different disciplines to present papers of different borderlands.
19. Archives Enriching the Present Cultures of the Northern Peoples
The main organizer: The Giellagas Institute of the Oulu University
Contact information: Marko Jouste, Ph.D. (marko.jouste/at/oulu.fi)
During the last two centuries a vast collection of Finno-Ugric language and culture research material has been gathered and stored in various archives located mainly in the Finno-Ugric speaking countries. In the early 20th century begun also the gathering of recorded sound and film material. The cultural value of the archive material is highly significant.
However, there are many open theoretical questions and unsolved challenges in the practical work concerning the use of this material. How the use of the archives collections should be organized in the future, since the amount of material is so vast, that the published material both in research and in general cultural work covers only a fragment of the entire collections? How to react on the fact that there have been significant changes in national and international legislation, archive practices, scientific principles and ethical codes since the time span of the gathering is so long?
The general theme of the symposium Archives Enriching the Present Cultures of the Northern Peoples addresses to the challenges on the use and preservation of these collections for the present day cultural and linguistic research, teaching and general cultural work.
The symposium is divided to five major themes:
1) The research of collective and individual memory
2) Linguistic archives: Instruments of revitalization or “data graveyards”?
3) The use of old and new archive material in the present-day culture emancipation
4) The dialogue between traditional and contemporary art
5) Present day theories and applications in the gathering of new materials and in the study of language and culture
20. Music as Culture in an Uralic Language Context
The general theme of the symposium: Music as Culture in an Uralic Language Context.
21. Diaspora Mordvins and their neighbours
Organiser: Merja Salo (mesalo/at/mappi.helsinki.fi)
The symposium is dedicated to the 150th anniversary of Heikki Paasonen’s (1865–1919) birth. He made four long fieldtrips to Erzya and Moksha villages and collected enormous dialectal material, publication of which lasted over 100 years and has been completed only recently.
The symposium welcomes specially papers dealing contemporary Mordvin diaspora near the titular republic, further in the east in Siberia and even in the south in republics of Central Asia.
How have the spoken Erzya and Moksha or Mordvin culture been influenced by many totally different neighbouring languages and cultures? Is it possible to find any influence vice versa? Are there any areal specialities in the current languages or have the speakers simply started to use Russian? Have the older distant Mordvin speakercommunities developed any local dialectal varieties? And the more recent migrations, how strong is the Russification among second generation of Mordvin diaspora?
The content is aimed to mainly linguistic, but also ethnographic, folkloristic and cultural subjects are acceptable.
The language of the presentations can be English, Erzya, Finnish, Moksha or Russian.
22. Linguistic reconstruction in Uralic: problems and prospects
Main organizer: Ante Aikio (ante.aikio/at/oulu.fi)
The symposium will present papers discussing any aspect of linguistic reconstruction in the Uralic languages, including phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical reconstruction, and reconstruction of language contact through the study of prehistoric inter-language influences (e.g., loanwords).