The available methods include x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and x-ray microscopy.
X-ray Diffraction (XRD)
XRD is a basic method used in the materials research. It can be used to measure and analyze compounds and phase content, crystal structure, residual stress, dislocation densities, and the texture from crystalline materials. Samples can be either solids or powders.
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
XRF is a research method for a broad-spectrum elemental analysis. The XRF can measure and quantify accurately very low elemental concentrations from powder, solid, and liquid samples.
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA)
XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy), also known as ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), is a surface chemical analysis method which can be used in the various fields of science and technology.
XPS measurement is based on the x-ray induced photoemission. XPS can detect elements from lithium to uranium and by analyzing the fine structure of the measured XPS spectrum, information about the chemical bonding between the atoms can be obtained.
X-ray microscope is an instrument for material imaging and failure analysis.