Biomedical Sensors and Measurement Systems

Adj. Prof. Teemu Myllylä leads the Biomedical Sensors and Measurement Systems Group in Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Research Unit. Our main interest is in development of new measurement methodologies and analysis techniques for medical research. We have strong expertise in biomedical sensors, instrumentation and multimodal measurement methods using various technologies.

Novel Biomedical sensors

Several novel sensors and measurement systems designed by our group are utilized in brain research in many hospitals around the world. For instance, we are the first research group that has enabled measurements of blood pressure and cardiorespiratory signals in magnetic neuroimaging environments, particularly simultaneously with Magnetoencephalography (MEG), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MR encephalography (MREG).

Averaged responses of breath holds for different signal modalities (Figs. a-e) in human body and the brain. 

Development of multimodal human and animal sensing

To better understand physiological signals recorded in the macro-scale, we aim to gather information simultaneously in the micro-scale. To this end, we are developing, in collaboration with Biocenter Oulu, a scalable monitoring concept that enables monitoring physiological signals to investigate macro-scale effects in humans and rodents. In addition, the rodent setup includes micro-scale imaging techniques, such as photoacoustic imaging, and the possibility to use biomarkers and perform quantitative microscopic tissue analyses. This allows us to study correlations between mechanistic cellular data and clinical functional data. Importantly, it also lets us validate and optimize new macroscopic sensing and imaging techniques for humans.

One of our main focuses is on brain research and development of these related imaging techniques, also for wearable use. We combine existing state- of-the-art technologies and develop new brain sensing techniques. Currently, optical, capacitive and microwave based imaging techniques are under development.

Our main research interests is in brain clearance and the glymphatic system.

Using multimodal techniques we can measure, such as, cerebral hemodynamics, blood volume and flow, CSF dynamics in the brain cortex and changes in dielectric properties of brain tissue. These techniques we aim to utilize for detecting brain clearance, hematomas and edema, pain, stages of sleep and blood brain barrier permeability.

Main collaborators 

Oulu University Hospital and Medical Research Center, Oulu, Finland
Biocenter Oulu, Finland
Boston University, Boston, USA
Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, NJ, USA
University Hospital Charité, Germany
Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany
Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands
Gdansk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Saratov State University, Saratov, Russia


Myllylä, T., Harju, M., Korhonen, V., Bykov, A., Kiviniemi, V., & Meglinski, I. (2018). Assessment of the dynamics of human glymphatic system by near‐infrared spectroscopy. Journal of biophotonics, 11(8), e201700123.

Myllylä, T., Kaakinen, M., Zienkiewicz, A., Jukkola, J., Vihriälä, E., Korhonen, V., ... & Kiviniemi, V. (2018, May). Cardiovascular effects of mannitol-infusion a comparison study performed on mouse and human. In Biophotonics: Photonic Solutions for Better Health Care VI (Vol. 10685, p. 106854A). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Raitamaa, L., Korhonen, V., Huotari, N., Raatikainen, V., Hautaniemi, T., Kananen, J., ... & Borchardt, V. (2018). Breath hold effect on cardiovascular brain pulsations–A multimodal magnetic resonance encephalography study. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 0271678X18798441.

Myllylä T, Zacharias N, Korhonen V, Zienkiewizc A,  Hinrichs H, Kiviniemi V, Walter M (2017) Multimodal brain imaging in magnetoencephalography: a method for measuring blood pressure and cardiorespiratory oscillations. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 172 (2017).

Myllylä T, Elsoud AA, Sorvoja H, Myllylä R, Harja J, Nikkinen J, Tervonen O, Kiviniemi V (2011) Fibre optic sensor for non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure during MRI scanning. J. Biophoton. 4 (1–2): 98–107.

Korhonen V, Hiltunen T, Myllylä T, Wang X, Kantola J, Nikkinen J, Zang Y, LeVan P, Kiviniemi V (2014) Synchronous multi-scale neuroimaging environment for critically sampled physiological analysis of brain function- a Hepta-scan concept. Brain Connectivity, Nov;4(9):677-89.

Myllylä T, Vihriälä E, Pedone M, Korhonen V, Surazynski L, Wróbel M, Zienkiewicz A, Hakala J, Sorvoja H, Lauri J, Fabritius T, Jędrzejewska-Szczerskae M, Kiviniemi V, Meglinski I (2017) Prototype of an opto-capacitive probe for non-invasive sensing cerebrospinal fluid circulation, Invited Paper, Proc. SPIE 10063.

Zienkiewicz A, Huotari N, Raitamaa L, Raatikainen V, Ferdinando H, Vihriälä E, Korhonen V,  Myllylä T, Kiviniemi V (2017) Continuous blood pressure recordings simultaneously with functional brain imaging - studies of the glymphatic system, Proc. SPIE 10063, Dynamics and Fluctuations in Biomedical Photonics XIV, 1006311 (March 3, 2017); doi:10.1117/12.2252032

Kiviniemi V, Korhonen V, Kortelainen J, Rytky S, Keinänen T, Tuovinen T, Isokangas M, Sonkajärvi E, Siniluoto T, Nikkinen J, Alahuhta S, Tervonen O, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Myllylä T, Kuittinen O, Voipio J (2017) Real-time monitoring of human blood-brain barrier disruption. PLoS ONE 12(3):e0174072.

Kauppi K, Korhonen V, Ferdinando H, Kallio M, Myllylä T (2017) Combined surface electromyography, near-infrared spectroscopy and acceleration recordings of muscle contraction: the effect of motion, Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017) 1650056 (13 pages).

Sanz Morère C, Surazynski L, Pérez-Tabernero A, Vihriälä E, Myllylä T, “MEMS technology sensors as a more advantageous technique for measuring foot plantar pressure and balance in human,” Journal of Sensors, vol. 2016, Article ID 6590252, 9 pages (2016).

Hakala J. & Myllylä T., "Optical probe utilizing the cross beam method for measuring solids," Opt. Eng. 55(8), 080501 (2016).



Last updated: 4.2.2019