Efficiency and Effectiveness of Training for Teachers' Pedagogical Digital Competence


Many policy-level measures and programmes have been developed across the EU to support the integration of digital tools into teaching and support the students’ learning through a variety of interventions, mainly through investments in infrastructure, improved access to digital learning resources and providing teacher training on how to implement digital infrastructure in teaching and learning. Less attention has been paid to the impact of investments in teacher preparation and training on student learning. The general assumption of the EffecTive project is that by improving teachers’ pedagogical digital competence (PDC), the quality of education can be raised in all levels of education.


Project information

Project duration


Funded by

Horizon Europe - Research & Innovation Action (RIA)

Project funder

European Commission

Funding amount

2 991 750 EUR

Project coordinator

Other university or unit

Contact information

Project leader

Contact person

Project description

The EffecTive project is a consortium of 7 international universities and 2 not-for-profit private organizations coordinated by Tallinn University that will address the development of teachers' pedagogical and digital competences across six countries. The University of Oulu is represented by Professor Hanna Järvenoja and doctoral researchers Kateryna Zabolotna and Emma Lehtoaho from the Learning and Educational Technology Research Lab (LET Lab). Our team is responsible for developing the theoretical foundation and collecting policy practices of effective teacher PDC training to support student learning (Output 1). Our expertise on self-regulated learning and educational technology will equally contribute to each work package of the project.

The main aim of EffecTive is to identify and understand the conditions to improve teachers’ PDC, considering the conditions' effectiveness and efficiency. We define effectiveness as a positive impact of the training on the quality of education (improved teachers’ PDC, students’ learning outcomes, inclusive learning environment). We define (cost) efficiency as the best way to transform the costs to benefits. EffecTive aims to (1) evaluate selected policy measures in the field of teacher PDC in five countries as well as (2) the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the related elements of 12 training interventions on teachers’ PDC and student learning outcomes as well as measures of equity and inclusion. The selected policy measures and training interventions will relate to teachers who work in primary and lower secondary schools because these were specifically targeted by recent policy measures in the EU.

Project actions

EffecTive will develop iteratively during the project lifespan a methodology and a toolkit (R1) to assess which measures and teacher training elements are effective and efficient in developing teachers' PDC and thereby ensuring a higher quality, more inclusive learning experience for students. Such a methodology provides reliable and valid rigorous research approaches of evaluating teacher training elements to improve the quality of education. Methodology will be validated on at least 12 different teacher training settings and gather quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate their effectiveness and efficiency. Conducting systematic variations of different elements of teacher training interventions in several quasi-experimental studies, enables us to understand what are the related costs and benefits of each intervention and combine the evidence to an overall cost-benefit framework to ensure an efficient use of public resources.

Project results

Input from studies will help to develop a knowledge base about factors influencing effectiveness and efficiency of teacher training (R2), evidence on the costs and impact (R3) of teacher training approaches on teacher practices and student outcome and effective teaching strategies (R4) to promote the students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) and deeper learning experience. By the end of the project, we propose a comprehensive cost-benefit framework (R5) for teacher training interventions and develop a tool that can be used to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis for training interventions, based on the studies carried out in EffecTive. Such results enable us to identify effective and efficient policy measures (R6) of developing teacher PDC.