Infotech Oulu Annual Report 2013 - MediaTeam Oulu

Professor Timo Ojala and Professor Vassilis Kostakos,
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Oulu

timo.ojala(at), vassilis.kostakos(at)

Background and Mission

 MediaTeam Oulu (MediaTeam), founded in 1997, was a research group at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Oulu. MediaTeam conducted leading edge research on urban computing, multimedia computing and Internet of Things with the objective of making a visible and lasting impact on society. MediaTeam was dissolved in 2014.

Scientific Progress

MediaTeam’s main research areas in 2013 were urban computing, community imaging, multimedia computing, and Internet of Things (IoT).

Urban computing

Urban computing is an emerging interdisciplinary research field which considers public spaces as potential sites for the development of ubiquitous computing. Urban computing is driven by two important and related trends, urbanization and rapid deployment of computing infrastructure in urban spaces. However, while urban spaces offer the greatest opportunities and strongest demands for ubiquitous computing, there is no fundamental theory, knowledge base, principled methods nor tools for designing and building ubiquitous systems as integral elements of the urban landscape.

MediaTeam coordinates the UBI (UrBan Interactions) research program that aims at introducing a visible and lasting change to society by building a functional prototype of an open ubiquitous city in Oulu in the form of the Open UBI Oulu test-bed. From the user community’s point of view, such a city appears as a smart urban space providing rich interaction between physical, virtual and social spaces. From the R&D community’s point of view, the city appears as an open community test-bed stimulating research, innovation and development of new services and applications. The test-bed enables urban computing research in an authentic urban setting with real users and with sufficient scale and time span. Such studies are important, because real world systems are culturally situated, and cannot be reliably evaluated with lab studies that are detached from the real world context. By deploying a system for a sufficiently long time “in the wild”, we can establish the technical and cultural readiness and the critical mass of real users that are needed for determining whether the system can be deemed ’successful’ or not.

The UBI program is executed by a portfolio of projects funded by various sources. 2013 saw the conclusion of the UBI Anthropos and the Adaptive Urban Lighting projects funded by the Academy of Finland, and the Urban Flows and Networks project funded by Tekes under the Finland Distinguished Professor Programme. In 2013 the UBI Metrics and UBI Mingle projects continued, funded by the Academy of Finland; the NIMO project funded by the INTERREG IV A North programme, the City of Oulu and industry; and the MAINIO project sponsored by the ERDF and the City of Oulu. New projects starting in 2013 were the UBI HIB project funded by the Academy of Finland, the reaxity project funded by Tekes, and the Open 3D Internet City Laboratory project funded by the University of Oulu.

The UBI program brings together a multidisciplinary research consortium. In 2013, it comprised of MediaTeam Oulu (Professor Timo Ojala and Professor Vassilis Kostakos), Interactive Spaces (Professor Jukka Riekki), the Department of Architecture (Dr. Aulikki Herneoja) and the Department of Economics (Professor Rauli Svento) from the University of Oulu.

To realize the open ubiquitous city, the UBI program engages an iterative cycle of technology-led and application-led research, together with the deployment of an open pervasive computing infrastructure at downtown Oulu. This is the unique dimension of our research strategy. The technology-led research produces new technology and knowledge, which, together with the new computing infrastructure, creates novel opportunities for application-led research. It is driven by domain-specific problems, which the UBI program addresses by developing two types of “proof of concept” prototypes, small-scale short-term demos and longitudinal large-scale pilots. Their empirical evaluation with real users in an authentic urban setting provides valuable feedback and creates new requirements on the technology-led research and the computing infrastructure.

The most visible piece of the pervasive computing infrastructure deployed by us is the UBI-hotspots, a network of large interactive public displays installed at pivotal outdoor and indoor locations around Oulu (Figure 1). Studies of interactive public displays are often criticized because their evaluation typically takes place in unrealistic lab environments, for short periods, with handpicked test users, predefined tasks, and limited content or services through a single prototype. Such focused usability evaluations provide excellent material for research papers, but whether they test anything of much practical interest is debatable. To gain more in-depth knowledge about the real-world use of interactive public displays, we have since 2009 deployed 18 multipurpose interactive displays around Oulu, Finland. They represent the world’s largest deployment of interactive public displays in a city center for research purposes. Our objective in deploying these displays was to understand how users derive value from interactive public displays that provide real services based on real content over an extended period. The hotspots offer typically 25-30 distinct interactive services, provided by us, the City of Oulu, private businesses, nongovernment organizations, and creative communities. We believe that this type of longitudinal real-world deployment gauges the value of any system for real users in a much more concrete way than short-term studies with predefined tasks and handpicked test participants. By deploying this many UBI-hotspots for this long, we can establish technical and cultural readiness and a critical mass of users needed to reliably evaluate the degree to which our hotspots succeeded as an interactive public display system. For example, our deployment has crystallized several design challenges, such as interaction blindness, i.e. people failing to interact with a display simply because they do not realize that they can.

Figure 1. UBI-hotspot at Oulu airport (left) and downtown Oulu (right).


One of the most valuable lessons that we have learned from our deployment of the UBI-hotspots is the degree of difference between laboratory and real-world settings. What works with recruited test users in a controlled laboratory setting is not necessarily representative of what works with a large population of real users accessing the displays on their own in a real-world setting. This was highlighted for example in the 2013 study involving the Wordster game. Wordster is derivative of Boggle, where the goal is to find as many words as possible from a grid of random characters within a limited time. In a multiplayer mode Wordster is played with mobile phones that are coupled with the UBI-hotspot using QR codes (Figure 2). Using the Wordster game as a probe, among other things, we compared the findings of controlled user evaluations and uncontrolled long-term deployment “in the wild”. First, we conducted controlled user evaluations on our university campus, where the usability and playability of the game was found to be very good, including the coupling of the phones with the UBI-hotspot using QR codes. Then we deployed the game on all UBI-hotspots where it soon became the most popular service. However, the general public did not adopt the multiplayer mode that required scanning the QR code with a mobile phone. Within a particular observation period, only five of the first 1676 completed games were multiplayer games played with mobile phones. 572 multiplayer games were selected to be played, but the actual gameplay never commenced. This poor adoption of the distributed user interface requiring the scanning of the QR code by the general public is in stark contrast with the promising findings of the controlled user evaluation.

Figure 2. Multiplayer Wordster is played with a distributed user interface coupling mobile phones and an UBI-hotspot.

In terms of longitudinal studies, in 2013 we published a paper on the discrepancies between citizens’ a priori and a posteriori information seeking strategies extracted from self-proclaimed information needs and the actual usage of the UBI-hotspots. In the design phase of the UBI-hotspots, we employed various methods such as contextual inquiry with lo-fi prototypes and card sorting to identify the types of information services that citizens believed to be useful in the upcoming interactive public displays. We then implemented most of the desired services in the UBI-hotspots, and logged the quantitative usage of the services over a long period of time. When we compared the usage data to the prediction we had made based on citizens’ opinions, we found that there were multiple services that people thought would be useful, but it turned out were not. For example, most people said they would love to have a service to find bus and transport schedules, or events happening in the city, or places to eat. It turns out these services (bottom-right in Figure 3) were some of the least used. On the other hand, news and games (top-left in Figure 3) turned out to be some of the most popular services on our displays, although initially they were not desired by citizens. This data shows that it can be really hard to identify beforehand popular services to be deployed on public displays, and most likely a trial-and-error approach should be expected.


Figure 3. Lack of correlation between self-proclaimed (x-axis) and actual (y-axis) usefulness of services on the UBI-hotspots.

Our anthropologic research of the ubiquitous Oulu continued with the collection of rich qualitative data on elderly and young adult citizens’ experiences and conceptions of ubiquitous technology in Oulu. The spatial dimension was taken into account both in the collection and analysis of the material to scrutinize people’s accounts of the urban space. Semi-structured theme interviews were employed together with more experimental methods borrowed from human-centered design. The analysis of the data supports our hypothesis: different people experience the ubiquitous Oulu in differing ways and have distinct technological needs and skills. However, these differences are not solely explained by age, but we have to take into account also people’s backgrounds and demography to better understand citizens’ technology-related experiences. Generally speaking, the results indicate that social aspects connected to technology are highly valued and that ubiquitous computing technologies could also be developed to be more experimental and co-creative. In 2013, we published a study that through a conceptual technology appropriation model (Figure 4) identified factors affecting the (dis)appropriation of two particular ICT infrastructures – a municipal WiFi network (panOULU WLAN) and the interactive public displays (UBI-hotspots) - in people’s daily ICT practices.

Figure 4. Our technology appropriation model.

An emerging research direction has been community imaging that studies communities of users through the lens of technology. Increasingly, the use of technology is resulting in usage data being recorded, most often as a byproduct. Our community imaging research focuses mostly on analyzing such usage data, and deriving models and understandings of how groups of people behave, both in terms of interacting with each other, but also in terms of individual behavior. This work involves three main axes: understanding, tools, and applications. The first focus in our work has been an analysis of the panOULU WLAN traces in order to model the movement of the population across the City of Oulu. Using heuristics, we have been able to identify tourists visiting our city and using the panOULU WLAN network, and we have been able to contrast tourists’ mobility patterns to those of local residents. This analysis has helped us understand better how various parts of the city, or indeed our university campus, are used differently by visitors and locals, and which parts are more likely to act as “attractors” for visitors. An orthogonal set of activities involves developing instrumentation and analysis tools for capturing and treating community-level data. For instance, we have developed web-based tools that let us conduct an historic analysis of the WLAN mobility traces, and provides visualization and animation tools such as heat maps, firefly effects and catchment area analysis to further investigate city-level mobility. In addition, we have been actively developing a pioneering Android platform instrumentation tool that lets us investigate in extreme detail what happens on smartphones, how they are used, and in what circumstances. Using this tool, we have been able to identify certain peculiarities in how smartphones are used. For instance, we have identified a phenomenon that we call “micro-usage”: about half of our use of smartphones every day takes place in short bursts of interactions that last less than 15 seconds. Finally, our work seeks to develop interesting applications that communities of users can interact with. For instance, in our work we have used appstores to deploy our software on thousands of smartphones and collect data in real-time about their usage. Furthermore, we were the first group to systematically study the potential of public displays for crowdsourcing. Our work has demonstrated that the expertise and skills of a community may be reachable by developing interactive applications on public displays, and we have found that communities are willing to donate time to interact with public displays in order to contribute to a worthy cause or charity.

With invaluable support from the City of Oulu, industry and public funding bodies, the UBI program has established the Open UBI Oulu test-bed at downtown Oulu for studying ubiquitous computing in an authentic urban setting. We have engaged in various outreach activities to make the globally unique test-bed available to the R&D community at large, and to stimulate the innovation of new services. The UBI RIR (Researcher in Residence) program invites researchers to residency in Oulu, to work in our city laboratory together with our researchers. The annual international UBI Summer Schools provide young researchers with an opportunity to gain hands on experience and insight into selected topics in the multidisciplinary fields of ubiquitous computing and urban informatics under the tutelage of distinguished experts. We have also hosted two international UBI Challenges in 2011 and 2013 that invited the global R&D community to design, implement, deploy end evaluate novel applications and services in the real-world setting at downtown Oulu, Finland. This way we hope to stimulate international research collaboration on ubiquitous computing and on urban informatics in a very concrete manner. (

Multimedia computing

Our research on multimedia computing focused on content-based video technologies, digital watermarking and speech processing. These research themes have emerged to be highly essential for enabling large-scale and interconnected multimedia systems and services, and have attracted industrial collaboration on several joint research projects.

Our research on content-based video technologies ended with the conclusion of the Next Media research program of the ICT SHOK in 2013. It aimed to meet people’s insatiable need for engaging and activating media experiences by means of new business models, concepts and technology. Production and consumption of media is under radical transformation. Digitalization of production, distribution and consumption of media, as well as the growing penetration of broadband access and mobile internet allow increasingly rich media content to be distributed to a variety of terminals. This endeavor takes advantage of the current transition towards co-creation, interactivity and independence of time and place. The diversity of terminals and devices in consumers’ everyday life is increasing, and the significance of mobility is emphasized. The company led program consisted of four work packages whose research themes cover all aspects of media production, from media content access to working processes and business models, as well as user experience. All major Finnish research organizations and universities are participating in the program. MediaTeam participated in the Affective Facets of Multimedia Content research topic, creating novel methodology for analyzing sentiments in video broadcasts of news, drama and movies. Our latest research findings on online TV content discovery services and automatic content analysis relate to long-term user studies on time-shifting behavior in web-based TV archive systems, unsupervised detection of novelty concepts from unstructured TV content data stream, online end-user systems for TV discovery, a mobile EPG application for TV content recommendations, non-linear skimming of archived TV programs and distributed multimedia data processing using Hadoop. We also published a consumer video dataset with annotated head trajectory ground truth data created with an in-house ground truth editor (Figure 5). The dataset can be utilized in benchmarking new person tracking methodologies with handheld camera recordings.

Figure 5. A screenshot of the ground truth editor used for annotating head trajectories in videos.

We continued research on digital watermarking in 2013. Digital watermarking is a method of embedding a secret sequence of bits in the host media such that it is hard to perceive or remove. This message can be then extracted from the host signal when the necessary algorithms are available. The essential technical challenges in watermarking include invisibility, robustness and capacity. A wide range of watermarking algorithms has been proposed, especially for watermarking of digital images. Generally, however, the resilience of this information in a physical printout, like binary images, holograms or color images has been less studied. This hardcopy watermarking, print-scan resilient and print-cam resilient watermarking, differs greatly from traditional watermarking. The detection, extraction and interpretation of the watermark are realized after a conversion of image information back to digital format using a scanner or mobile phone camera. The extraction algorithms have to handle both geometrical distortion, and pixel value distortions. Very specialized techniques compared to traditional watermarking are required. In 2013, we focused on inspecting applications and use cases (Figure 6) of print-cam robust watermarking and continued the work begun in 2012. A demo program was implemented on different platforms, and the results of these studies will be later published. The aim is to gain new insight into the print-cam robust watermarking by studying it in practice and through implementation in real life instead of simulated environments provided by Matlab etc. In addition, the current work gains benefit from other fields such as computer vision and software engineering. In 2013, first steps were also taken in the field of medical watermarking and its applications on healthcare systems, in parallel with other security measures.

Figure 6. An interactive poster using digital watermarking and a mobile phone camera.

In speech processing research, a novel method for the construction of low dimensional visualizations of emotional speech was developed, based on prosodic speech features. Class labels assigned to data samples are utilized in nonlinear manifold learning in order to generate manifold structures that differentiate emotions. A supervised classifier based method is used to emphasize the relevant emotional structures. The developed method was used to present the MediaTeam Speech Corpus emotional speech data in a way that resembles closely to the current knowledge of dimensional model of emotion. The method was shown to be capable of robust emotional content discrimination, achieving the performance level of the human reference. The created visualization was further shown to be capable of mapping the perceived emotional intensity of the emotional speech data samples, even though intensity data was not used in the training of the model.

Internet of Things (IoT)

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm refers to uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure. The future IoT is likely to contain tens of billions of nodes providing universal control of electricity and water utilities, medical ICT and industry automation. Sensor networks on a scale of a million nodes are possible already today, and M2M (machine-to-machine) automatic metering systems of tens of millions of nodes have already been deployed.

MediaTeam’s key research project in this area was the Massive Scale Machine-to-Machine Service (MAMMOTH) project funded by Tekes and industry. The MAMMOTH project focused on three complementary aspects in M2M communications: scalability of architectures and protocols, security and congestion aspects of embedded web services on sensor nodes, and platform application interfaces. In 2013, the focus was on developing fully decentralized service architecture for M2M communications and integrating the components to enable large-scale evaluation scenarios. The architecture comprises of Dynamic Task and Service Composition (DTSC), Execution Environments (EE) for different sensor and actuator devices, and a Distributed Resource Database (DRD). Together, the components provide a scalable, cost efficient and failure tolerant alternative to the current M2M network architectures. Implementing the evaluation scenarios provided practical understanding of the requirements for M2M application interfaces.

International collaboration and events

MediaTeam is highly multidisciplinary and international in its activities, collaborating with domestic and international research partners from different disciplines, and contributing to the international academic community. Collaboration takes mainly place in form of research visits and organizing international events.

Dr. Hannu Kukka made an 11-month visit to Carnegie Mellon University, hosted by Professor Anind Dey, Jorge Goncalves made a 3-month visit to PKNU and KAIST in Busan and Daejeong in Korea, and Marko Jurmu completed his 12-month visit to Keio University, hosted by Professor Hideyuki Tokuda in April 2013. We hosted Professor Marcus Foth from Queensland University of Technology for two weeks and Javier Gomez Escribano from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid for six months under the UBI Researcher in Residence (RIR) program.

We organized the UBISS 2013 (4th International UBI Summer School 2013) in Oulu on June 10–15. It comprised of four parallel workshops instructed by leading international experts (Figure 7): “Experience-driven Design of Ubiquitous Interactions in Urban Spaces” by Professor Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila from Tampere University of Technology and Dr. Jonna Häkkilä from the University of Oulu; “Designing Mobile Augmented Reality Interfaces” by Professor Mark Billinghurst from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand; “Developing Ubiquitous Computing Devices” by Professor Albrecht Schmidt from the University of Stuttgart, Germany; and “Urban Resource Networks” by Professor Malcolm McCullough from the University of Michigan, USA. 76 students from 18 countries enrolled in the summer school via an open international call, making it the largest UBI summer school so far. All students attended a number of joint events, including a madness session where students presented their background and ongoing research, an opening plenary where each workshop was introduced and a closing plenary where each workshop presented their results. Each workshop had its own curriculum and activities, which included theoretical presentations by the instructor and practical projects conducted in groups of 3-5 students. (


Figure 7. The instructors of the UBISS 2013 (4th International UBI Summer School 2013) posing with Timo Ojala. From left: Jonna Häkkilä, Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Mark Billinghurst, Albrecht Schmidt and Malcolm McCullough.

We organized the 2nd International UBI Challenge 2013 that again invited the global R&D community to design, implement, deploy and evaluate novel applications and services in the real-world setting at downtown Oulu, Finland, atop the Open UBI Oulu test-bed. In comparison to the 2011 UBI Challenge, the most important change in the setup was that the finalists were no longer required to stay up to three months on site in Oulu to deploy and evaluate their applications in person. Some jury members felt that this requirement limited the people that could participate. So, instead, remote participation was allowed so that the finalists could submit their working applications for deployment and data collection by the organizers. Only four proposals were submitted, three from European universities and one from a local researcher at the University of Oulu. One of the four proposals was deemed infeasible by the organizers. The remaining three proposals were invited to the final, all three involving the UBI-hotspots. Eventually, two of the three finalists completed the deployment of their applications in Oulu. HotCity had originally been developed for the City of Patras in Greece, and the contributors adapted it for the City of Oulu in the Challenge. Martians from Outer Space was being developed independently by a local researcher as a free time hobby, and he then submitted it as a proposal to the Challenge that just happened to conveniently take place. The collection of the field data commenced on July 1, 2013, and continued till August 31, 2013. The finalists reported their studies to the jury in the form of a full paper, and a video recording of a presentation structured according to a given presentation template. The jury ranked as the winner the HotCity service contributed by a team of researchers from the University of Patras, Greece that was led by Dr. Andreas Komninos. The runner-up, Martians from Outer Space contributed by Jukka Holappa from the University of Oulu can take some consolation from the fact that it has since become the most popular service on the UBI-hotspots. The award ceremony was held in the in the MUM 2013 conference in Luleå, Sweden, in December 2013 (Figure 8). (

Figure 8. The award ceremony of the 2nd International UBI Challenge 2013 at the MUM 2013 conference in Luleå on Dec 3, 2013 (from left): Timo Ojala (Chair of Jury); Tommi Heikkinen (University of Oulu) and Jeries Besharat (University of Patras).

Finally, we contributed in different roles to the organization of the following international conferences and workshops:  the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis 2013) held in Mountain View, CA, USA; the 2013 UbiComp Doctoral School in Zurich, Switzerland; and the 2nd International Workshop on Ubiquitous Mobile Instrumentation (UbiMI 2013) and the Human Interfaces for Civic and Urban Engagement workshop (HiCUE 2013) collocated with UbiComp 2013 in Zurich, Switzerland.


All good things come to an end someday. MediaTeam was dissolved in early 2014, after 16 years of research, yielding 570 scientific publications, 16 dissertations, and a visible and lasting impact on the urban landscape of Oulu in form of the panOULU WLAN network and the UBI-hotspots. We warmly thank our public financiers, industrial and academic partners, the City of Oulu, and the citizens of Oulu for their collaboration and support over the years. Selected research activities will be continued by various existing and new research groups as follows. Research on urban computing will be conducted by the new Urban Computing and Cultures group, established by Professor Timo Ojala ( This group will also adopt MediaTeam’s responsibilities for the Open UBI Oulu test-bed, most notably the maintenance duties of panOULU WLAN network and the UBI-hotspots. Research on community imaging will be conducted by the new Community Imaging Group established by Professor Vassilis Kostakos ( Research on content-based multimedia analytics will be continued in the Interactive Spaces group, led by Professor Jukka Riekki ( Research on digital watermarking and speech processing will be continued in Professor Tapio Seppänen’s Biosignal Processing Team in the Biomedial Engineering Research Group (BME) ( IoT research will be continued by Professor
Mika Ylianttila at the Center for Internet Excellence ( and in the Networking team (NET) at the Centre for Wireless Communications ( 



professors, doctors


doctoral students






person years



External Funding



Academy of Finland

260 000

Ministry of Education and Culture

30 000


255 000

other domestic public

158 000

domestic private

77 000


25 000





Doctoral Theses

Ferreira D (2013) AWARE: A mobile context instrumentation middleware to collaboratively understand human behavior. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis C 420.

Keskinarkaus A (2013) Digital watermarking techniques for printed images. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis C 441.


Selected Publications

Alatalo T, Kuusela E, Puuperä R & Ojala T (2013) Comparative API complexity analysis of two platforms for networked multiplayer games using a reference game. Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Games and Software Engineering (GAS 2013), San Francisco, CA, USA, 44-50.

Alavesa P & Zanni D (2013) Combining storytelling tradition and pervasive gaming. Proc. 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2013), Bournemouth, UK, 130-134.

Amir S, Bilasco IM & Rautiainen M (2013) CAM4Home: A generic ontology for a rich multimedia experience. International Journal of Computer Applications 67(12):19-25.

Deng S, Liu Y, Li H & Hu F (2013) How does personality matter? An investigation of the impact of extraversion on individuals’ SNS use. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 16(8): 575-581.

Ferreira D, Ferreira E, Goncalves J, Kostakos V & Dey AK (2013) Revisiting human-battery interaction with an interactive battery interface. Proc. 2013 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2013), Zurich, Switzerland, 563-572.

Goncalves J, Ferreira D, Hosio S, Liu Y, Kukka H & Kostakos V (2013) Crowdsourcing on the spot: Altruistic use of public displays, feasibility, performance, and behaviors. Proc. 2013 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2013), Zurich, Switzerland, 753-762.

Goncalves J, Kostakos V, Karapanos E, Barreto M, Camacho T, Tomasic A & Zimmerman J (2013) Citizen motivation on the go: The role of psychological empowerment. Interacting with Computers, online first.

Heikkinen A, Sarvanko J, Rautiainen M & Ylianttila M (2013) Distributed multimedia content analysis with MapReduce. Proc. 24th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2013), London, UK, 3522-3526.

Holappa J, Heikkinen T & Roininen E (2013) Martians from Outer Space: Experimenting with location-aware cooperative multiplayer gaming on public displays. Proc. 12th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM 2013), Luleå, Sweden, article no. 53.

Hosio S, Goncalves J & Kostakos V (2013) Application discoverability on multipurpose public displays: Popularity comes at a price. Proc. 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis2013), Mountain View, CA, USA, 31-36.

Hu C-P, Hu J-M, Deng S-L & Liu Y (2013) A co-word analysis of library and information science in China. Scientometrics 97(2):369-382.

Jurmu M, Ogawa M, Boring S, Riekki J & Tokuda H (2013) Waving to a touch interface: Descriptive field study of a multipurpose multimodal public display. Proc. 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis 2013), Mountain View, CA, USA, 7-12.

Komninos A, Besharat J, Ferreira D & Garofalakis J (2013) HotCity: Enhancing ubiquitous maps with social context heatmaps. Proc. 12th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM 2013), Luleå, Sweden, article no. 52.

Koskela T, Kassinen O, Harjula E & Ylianttila M (2013) P2P group management systems: A conceptual analysis. ACM Computing Surveys 45(2), article no. 20.

Kostakos V & Ojala T (2013) Public displays invade urban spaces. IEEE Pervasive Computing 12(1):8-13.

Kostakos V, Juntunen T, Goncalves J, Hosio S & Ojala T (2013) Where am I? - Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns. PloS ONE 8(5):e63980.

Kostakos V, Kukka H, Goncalves J, Tselios N & Ojala T (2013) Multipurpose public displays: How shortcut menus affect usage. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 33(2):50-57.

Kostakos V, Ojala T & Juntunen T (2013) Traffic in the smart city: Exploring city-wide sensing for traffic control center augmentation. IEEE Internet Computing 17(6):22-29.

Kukka H, Kostakos V, Ojala T, Ylipulli J, Suopajärvi T, Jurmu M & Hosio S (2013) This is not classified: everyday information seeking and encountering in smart urban spaces. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 17(1):15-27.

Kukka H, Luusua A, Ylipulli J, Suopajärvi T, Kostakos V & Ojala T (2013) From cyberpunk to calm urban computing: Exploring the role of technology in the future cityscape. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, online first.

Kukka H, Oja H, Kostakos V, Goncalves J & Ojala T (2013) What makes you click: Exploring visual signals to entice interaction on public displays. Proc. 31st International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2013), Paris, France, 1699-1708.

Leppänen T, Liu M, Harjula E, Ramalingam A, Ylioja J, Närhi P, Riekki J & Ojala T (2013) Mobile agents for integration of internet of things and wireless sensor networks. Proc. 2013 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2013), Manchester, UK, 14-21.

Li H, Liu Y & Suomi R (2013) Exploring the factors motivating e-service users’ WOM behavior. International Journal of Services Technology and Management 19(4-6):187–200.

Liu M, Harjula E & Ylianttila M (2013) An efficient selection algorithm for building a super-peer overlay. Journal of Internet Services and Applications 4(1):1-12.


Liu Y, Li H & Hu F (2013) Websites attributes in urging online impulse purchase: An empirical investigation on consumer perceptions. Decision Support Systems 55(3):829-837.

Luojus P, Koskela J, Ollila K, Mäki S-M, Kulpa-Bogossia R, Heikkinen T & Ojala T (2013) Wordster: Collaborative versus competitive gaming using interactive public displays and mobile phones. Proc. 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis 2013), Mountain View, CA, USA, 109-114.

Ojala T (2013) 2nd International UBI Challenge 2013. Proc. 12th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM 2013), Luleå, Sweden, article no. 51.

Ojala T, Want R, Schilit BN, Müller J & Lea R (2013) Proceedings of 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis 2013), Mountain View, CA, USA, ACM Press.

Rautiainen M, Sarvanko J, Heikkinen A, Ylianttila M & Kostakos V (2013) An online system with end-user services: Mining novelty concepts from TV broadcast subtitles. Proc. 19th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge, Discovery and Data Mining (KDD 2013), Chicago, IL, USA, 1486-1489.

Rogstadius J, Teixeira C, Vukovic M, Kostakos V, Karapanos E & Laredo J (2013) CrisisTracker: Crowdsourced social media curation for disaster awareness. IBM Journal of Research and Development 57(5):4:1-13.

Sarvanko J, Rautiainen M, Heikkinen A & Ylianttila M (2013) Consumer video dataset with marked head trajectories. Proc. 4th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference (MMSys 2013), Oslo, Norway, 84-89.

Väyrynen E, Kortelainen J & Seppänen T (2013) Classifier-based learning of nonlinear feature manifold for visualization of emotional speech prosody. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing 4(1):47-56.

Ylipulli J & Suopajärvi T (2013) Contesting ubicomp visions through ICT practices: Power negotiations in the meshwork of a technologised city. International Communication Gazette 75(5-6): 538-554.

Ylipulli J, Suopajärvi T, Ojala T, Kostakos V & Kukka H (2013) Municipal WiFi and interactive displays: Appropriation of new technologies in public urban spaces. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, online first.

Last updated: 26.2.2015