Articles - Steel Structures


  1. Björk T, Ahola A & Skriko T
    On the distortion and warping of cantilever beams with hollow section (in press). – Welding in the World, doi:10.1007/s40194-020-00911-5.
  2. Mettänen H, Nykänen T, Skriko T, Ahola A & Björk T
    Fatigue strength assessment of TIG-dressed ultra-high-strength steel fillet weld joints using the 4R method (accepted for publication, in press). – International Journal Fatigue.
  3. Neuvonen R, Skriko T & Björk T Use of quasi-static Johnson-Cook model in the failure assessment of tensile specimens with metallurgical constraints. – European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids 82, 104011; doi:j.euromechsol.2020.104011.


  1. Afkhami S, Dabiri M, Habib Alavi S, Björk T & Salminen A Fatigue characteristics of steels manufactured by selective laser melting. – International Journal of Fatigue 122, 72–83; doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.12.029.
  2. Afkhami S, Björk T & Larkiola J Weldability of cold-formed high strength and ultra-high strength steels. – Journal Constructional Steel Research 158, 86–98; doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2019.03.017.
  3. Ahola A, Skriko T & Björk T Fatigue strength assessment of ultra-high-strength fillet weld joints using 4R method (in press). – Journal Constructional Steel Research, 105861; doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2019.105861.
  4. Ahola A, Björk T & Barsoum Z Fatigue strength capacity of load-carrying fillet welds on ultra-high-strength steel plates subjected to out-of-plane bending. – Engineering Structures 196, 109282; doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109282.
  5. Amraei M, Ahola A, Afkhami S, Heidarpour A, Björk T & Zhao X-L Effects of heat input on the mechanical properties of butt-welded high and ultra-high strength steels. – Engineering Structures 198, 109460; doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109460.
  6. Amraei M, Zong L, Ahola A & Björk T Bonded CFRP to high strength steels. – Journal of Structural Mechanics 52(4), 222–235; doi: 10.23998/rm.76267.
  7. Amraei M, Zhao X-L, Björk T & Heidarpour A Bond characteristics between high / ultra-high strength steel and ultra-high modulus CFRP laminates. – Engineering Structures 205, 110094; doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.110094.
  8. Björk T, Ahola A & Tuominen N Distortional buckling of X-joints made of square hollow cross section beams: Theoretical energy-based model. – Steel Construction 12, 55–63; doi:10.1002/stco.201800002.
  9. Yanchukovich A, Ahola A & Björk T Cycle counting of the peak-valley filtered multiaxial loading history using Wang–Brown method (in Finnish). – Journal of Structural Mechanics 52(2), 61–76 ; doi:10.23998/rm.75618


  1. Björk T, Mettänen H, Ahola A, Lindgren M & Terva J
    Fatigue strength assessment of duplex and super-duplex stainless steels by 4R method. – Welding in the World 62, 1285–1300; doi:10.1007/s40194-018-0657-8.
  2. Björk T, Ahola A & Tuominen N
    On the design of fillet welds made of ultra-high strength steel. – Welding in the World 62, 985–995; doi:10.1007/s40194-018-0624-4.
  3. Dabiri M, Lindroos M, Andersson T, Afkhami S, Laukkanen A & Björk T
    Utilizing the theory of critical distances in conjunction with crystal plasticity for low-cycle notch fatigue analysis of S960 MC high-strength steel. – International Journal of Fatigue 117, 257–273; doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.07.042.
  4. Dabiri M, Ghafouri M, Rohani Raftar H & Björk T
    Evaluation of strain – life fatigue curve estimation methods and their application to a direct-quenched high-strength steel. – Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 27, 1058–1072; doi:10.1007/s11665-018-3215-z.
  5. Hämäläinen O-P, Halme T & Björk T
    Local buckling of welded box Beams Made of Ultrahigh-Strength Steels. – Journal of Structural Engineering 144(7); doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002049.
  6. Peippo J, Björk T & Nykänen T
    A novel method for fatigue assessment of steel plates with thermally cut edges. – Welding in the World 62, 105–115; doi:10.1007/s40194-017-0529-7.


  1. Ahola A, Nykänen T & Björk T
    Effect of loading type on the fatigue strength of asymmetric and symmetric transverse non-load carrying attachments. – Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 40(5), 670–682; doi:10.1111/ffe.12531.
  2. Björk T, Nykänen T & Valkonen I
    On the critical plane of axially loaded plate structures made of ultra-high strength steel. – Welding in the World 61, 139–150; doi:10.1007/s40194-016-0387-8.
  3. Dabiri M, Ghafouri M, Rohani Raftar H & Björk T
    Neural network-based assessment of the stress concentration factor in a T-welded joint. – Journal of Constructional Steel Research 128, 567–578; doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2016.09.024.
  4. Dabiri M, Ghafouri M, Rohani Raftar H & Björk T
    Utilizing artificial neural networks for stress concentration factor calculation in butt welds. – Journal of Constructional Steel Research 138, 488–498; doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.009.
  5. Nykänen T, Mettänen H, Björk T & Ahola A
    Fatigue assessment of welded joints under variable amplitude loading using a novel notch stress approach. – International Journal of Fatigue 101, 177–191; doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.12.031.
  6. Skriko T, Ghafouri M & Björk T
    Fatigue strength of TIG-dressed ultra-high-strength steel fillet weld joints at high stress ratio. – International Journal of Fatigue 94, 110–120; doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.09.018.


  1. Amraei M, Dabiri M, Björk T & Skriko T
    Effects of workshop fabrication processes on the deformation capacity of S960 ultra-high strength steel. – Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 138(12), 121007; doi:10.1115/1.4033930.
  2. Amraei M, Skriko T, Björk T & Zhao X-L
    Plastic strain characteristics of butt-welded ultra-high strength steel (UHSS). – Thin-Walled Structures 109, 227–241; doi:10.1016/j.tws.2016.09.024.
  3. Björk T, Ahola A & Nykänen T
    Punching shear capacity of T-joint made of high-strength steel. – Welding in the World 60, 315–326; doi:10.1007/s40194-015-0292-6.
  4. Dabiri M, Isakov M, Skriko T & Björk T
    Experimental fatigue characterization and elasto-plastic finite element analysis of notched specimens made of direct-quenched ultra-high-strength steel. – Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 231, pp. 4209–4226; doi:10.1177/0954406216661210.
  5. Dabiri M, Skriko T, Amraei M & Björk T
    Effect of side grooves on plane stress fracture behavior of compact tension specimens made of ultra-high strength steel. – Key Engineering Materials 713, 159–162.
  6. Laitinen R, Skriko T & Björk T
    Effect of the welding process and filler material on the fatigue behavior of 960 MPa structural steel at a butt joint configuration. – Journal of Laser Applications 28, 022413; doi:10.2351/1.4943993.
  7. Neuvonen R, Björk T & Skriko T
    Material models for armor steels (in Finnish). – Journal of Structural Mechanics 49:220–236.
  8. Nykänen T & Björk T
    A new proposal for assessment of the fatigue strength of steel butt-welded joints improved by peening (HFMI) under constant amplitude tensile loading. – Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 39, 566–582; doi: 10.1111/ffe.12377.
  9. Nykänen T, Mettänen H, Ahola A & Björk T
    Use of 3R method for the fatigue assessment of welded joints under variable amplitude loading (in Finnish). – Journal of Structural Mechanics 49, 176–201.


  1. Dabiri M, Laukkanen A & Björk T
    Fatigue microcrack nucleation modeling: A survey of the state of the art. – International Review of Mechanical Engineering 9(4), 368–376. doi:10.15866/ireme.v9i4.6231.
  2. Nykänen T & Björk T
    Assessment of fatigue strength of steel butt-welded joints in as-welded condition – Alternative approaches for curve fitting and mean stress effect analysis. – Marine Structures 44, 288–310; doi: 10.1016/j.marstruc.2015.09.005.
  3. Hämäläinen O-P & Björk T
    Fretting fatigue phenomenon in bolted high-strength steel plate connections. – Steel Construction 8, 174–178; doi: 10.1002/stco.201510021.


  1. Björk T, Penttilä T & Nykänen T
    Rotation capacity of fillet weld joints made of high-strength steel. – Welding in World 58, 853–863; doi:10.1007/s40194-014-0164-5.
  2. Björk T, Valkonen I, Kömi J & Indren H
    Capacity of a welded structure of direct-quenched ultra-high-strength structural steels. – SAE Technical Papers, 36-0031; doi:10.4271/2014-36-0031.
  3. Nykänen T, Björk T, Mettänen H, Ilyin A V & Koskimäki M
    Residual strength at -40°C of a pre-cracked cold-formed rectangular hollow section made of ultra-high-strength steel – An engineering approach. – Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 37, 325–334; doi:10.1111/ffe.12117.
  4. Ritakallio P & Björk T
    Low-temperature ductility and structural behaviour of cold-formed hollow section structures – progress during the past two decades. – Steel Construction 7, 107–115; doi:10.1002/stco.201410024.
  5. Skriko T, Björk T & Nykänen T
    Effects of weaving technique on the fatigue strength of transverse loaded fillet welds made of ultra-high-strength steel. – Welding in the World 58, 377–387; doi:10.1007/s40194-014-0123-1.


  1. Nykänen T, Björk T & Laitinen R
    Fatigue strength prediction of ultra high strength steel butt-welded joints. – Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 36, 469–482; doi:10.1111/ffe.12015.
  2. Rantalainen T, Mikkola A & Björk T
    Sub-modeling approach for obtaining structural stress histories during dynamic analysis. – Mechanical Sciences 4, 21–31; doi:10.5194/ms-4-21-2013.


  1. Björk T, Toivonen J & Nykänen T
    Capacity of fillet welded joints made of ultra high-strength steel. – Welding in the World 56, 71–84; doi:10.1007/BF03321337.


  1. Yu J, Marquis G, Björk T
    Development of data sheets for statistical evaluation of fatigue data. – Journal of Iron and Steel Research International 18(5), 70-78; doi:10.1016/S1006-706X(11)60068-X.


  1. Nykänen T, Marquis G & Björk T
    A simplified fatigue assessment method for high quality welded cruciform joints. – International Journal of Fatigue 31, 79–87; doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2008.02.016
  2. Oinonen, A, Tanskanen, P, Björk T & Marquis G
    Pattern optimization of eccentrically loaded multi-fastener joints. – Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 40, 597-609; doi:10.1007/s00158-009-0392-2.


  1. Björk T, Heinilä S & Marquis G
    Assessment of subzero fracture of welded tubular K-joint. – Journal of Structural Engineering 134(2); doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:2(181).
  2. Björk T, Samuelsson J & Marquis G
    The need for a weld quality system for fatigue loaded structures. – Welding in the World 52(1-2), 34-46; doi:10.1007/BF03266615.
  3. Heinilä S, Björk, T & Marquis, G
    The influence of residual stresses on the fatigue strength of cold-formed structural tubes. – Journal of ASTM International 5(5), 1-11; doi:10.1520/JAI101570.


  1. Heinilä S, Marquis G & Björk T
    Observations on fatigue crack paths in the corners of cold-formed high-strength steel tubes. – Engineering Fracture Mechanics 75(3-4), 833-844; doi:j.engfracmech.2007.01.010.
  2. Nykänen T, Marquis G & Björk T
    Fatigue analysis of non-load-carrying fillet welded cruciform joints. – Engineering Fracture Mechanics 74, 399–415; doi:10.1016/j.engfracmech.2006.05.017.


  1. . Björk T, Marquis G, Pellikka V & Ilvonen R
    An experimental and numerical study of the fracture strength of welded structural hollow section X-joints. – Journal of ASTM International 3(6), 1-14; doi:10.1520/JAI13183.

Last updated: 15.9.2020